Which advice is essential to parents on raising a child type INFP?

Parents must remind the INFP that they are loved and accepted for who they are, and that criticism does not mean dislike.

(Susan Storm, 2015.)

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Personality Differences and Relationship Satisfaction from the Perspective of the Big Five Trait Theory

“My wife and I were happy for 20 years,” joked Rodney Dangerfield, a stand-up comedian, and actor, in one of his routines. “Then, we met.”

That knee-slapper played on a marital axiom probably as old the institution itself; individual differences often lead to corporate unhappiness. These differences are attributable to a variety of factors, including circumstances – situational, cultural, and historical – biology and even plain old luck. However, personality is also responsible to a significant degree.

The Big Five theory of personality, which is also known as the Five-Factor Model or the OCEAN model, is grounded on the premise that the human personality consists of a mix five significant traits, each with multiple gradations spread across a spectrum (McCrae, Robert R., and Costa Jr., Paul T., 1987). Research indicates that there is a significant predictive relationship between these personality traits and the quality of romantic life. Let us look at each of these traits and their influence on relationship satisfaction.

Openness to Experience

Openness to experience is the proclivity to seek new knowledge and enjoy new experiences as opposed to intolerance and rigidity. Insightfulness, being imaginative, and having a wide range of interests are some of the related attributes.

A study by Malouff, Thorsteinsson, and Schutte (2010) indicates that openness to experience plays a minimal role in relationship satisfaction. However, that does not mean it is entirely inconsequential; in relationships where women scored high on agreeableness and openness, couples had sex more often, according to research by Meltzer and McNulty (2010). The personality of the husband did not affect the frequency of sex. However, husbands with a combination of openness to experience and neuroticism were less sexually satisfied, suggesting an increased risk of adventurism.

Conscientiousness and Agreeableness

Conscientiousness is the propensity to be responsible, goal-oriented, hardworking, organized, and obedient as opposed to being sloppy and lazy. At the same time, agreeableness is the penchant for being friendly, kind, cooperative, and polite. Those who are high on the conscientiousness scale tend to be reliable, diligent, and disciplined. In contrast, high levels of agreeableness are associated with prosocial attributes such as altruism, affection, and trust.

It is not surprising that conscientiousness and agreeableness predict relationship satisfaction, given the nature of attributes, such as low impulsivity and high interpersonal trust, linked with both traits. A combination of high agreeableness, high conscientiousness, and low neuroticism is associated with marital satisfaction, according to research by Dyrenforth, Kashy, Donnellan, and Lucas (2010).

Low levels of both traits, on the other hand, predict sexual risk-taking and infidelity, a 2008 study by Schmidt and Shackelford shows. Research also shows a link between low agreeableness and an increased likelihood of having unprotected sex, sleeping with strangers, and having a large number of sexual partners, according to a 2001 study by Hoyle.

Extraversion

Extraverts, or extroverts, get their energy from interacting with others, while introverts derive their energy from within themselves. Extraverted traits include talkativeness and assertiveness.

Individuals who score highly on the extraversion scale are generally charismatic, happy, socially connected, well-adjusted, sexually, and skilled at handling relationships. However, high levels of extraversion are also associated with sexual adventurism, a 2008 study by Schmidt shows. In men, a combination of high extraversion and low conscientiousness predicts lower marital satisfaction for their wives, according to a 2012 study by Rosowsky, King, Coolidge, Rhoades, and Segal.

Neuroticism

Neuroticism is usually defined as a proclivity to anxiety, depression, self-doubt, and other negative feelings, as opposed to confidence and emotional stability conscientiousness. Individuals who are high on the neuroticism scale tend to have mood disorders, hypochondria, and related problems.

The link between neuroticism and poor romantic outcomes seems to be particularly pronounced. For instance, a study published in 1987 by Lowell Kelly and James Connelly, researchers at the University of Michigan, that followed 300 couples over 30 years showed that the neuroticism of one spouse predicted dissatisfaction both in marriage and divorce. Besides, neuroticism seems to harm sex life, according to a 2008 study by Terri Fisher of Ohio State University and James McNulty of Florida State University.

Closing Thoughts

The fairly persistent nature of personality means it has a powerful influence on sex, relationship satisfaction, and related matters. High levels of conscientiousness and agreeableness have a positive impact, while similar levels of neuroticism are undoubtedly bad news.

Extraversion is a mixed bag, its influence depending on the particular mix of traits. Openness to experience seems to have a minimal but discernible effect that, like with extraversion, varies by gender and a specific blend of attributes.

Research by Furler, Grob, and Gomez (2013) shows that personality compatibility is not necessary for a satisfying long-term relationship. Happiness depends on the emotional stability, agreeableness, and conscientiousness of the partners. Neurotic individuals and extraverted individuals can also cultivate these qualities with self-awareness and practice. A great long-term romantic relationship, as author Dave Meurer notes, is not the result of a ‘perfect couple’ coming together, but of an imperfect couple learning to enjoy their differences.

 

by: The Literary Alchemist (Samuel Maina )- Bachelor of Arts in English Linguistics and Sociology.

Bibliography

    • McCrae, Robert R., and Costa Jr., Paul T (1987). Validation of the Five-Factor Model of Personality Across Instruments and Observers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
    • Malouff, J.M., Thorsteinsson, E.B. & Schutte, N.S. J Psychopathol Behav Assess (2005) 27: 101. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862-005-5384-y
    • Meltzer, Andrea L., and McNulty, James K., (2015, October). Who is having more and better sex? The Big Five as predictors of sex in marriage. Journal of Research in Personality
    • Dyrenforth, P. S., Kashy, D. A., Donnellan, M. B., & Lucas, R. E. (2010). Predicting relationship and life satisfaction from personality in nationally representative samples from three countries: The relative importance of actor, partner, and similarity effects. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 99(4), 690-702.
    • Schmitt, David P., and Shackelford, Todd K. (2008). Big Five Traits Related to Short-Term Mating: From Personality to Promiscuity across 46 Nations. Sage Journals. https://doi.org/10.1177/147470490800600204
    • Hoyle, Rick H. (2001, December). Personality Processes and Problem Behavior. Journal of Personality. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-6494.00122
    • Erlene Rosowsky Ph.D., Katherine D. King PsyD, Frederick L. Coolidge Ph.D., Camille S. Rhoades BA & Daniel L. Segal Ph.D. (2012). Marital Satisfaction and Personality Traits in Long-Term Marriages: An Exploratory Study, Clinical Gerontologist, 35:2, 77-87, DOI: 10.1080/07317115.2011.639855
    • Kelly, E. L., & Conley, J. J. (1987). Personality and compatibility: A prospective analysis of marital stability and marital satisfaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52(1), 27-40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.52.1.27
    • Fisher TD1, McNulty JK. (2008, February). Neuroticism and marital satisfaction: the mediating role played by the sexual relationship. Journal of Family Psychology. 22(1):112-22. doi: 10.1037/0893-3200.22.1.112.
    • Furler, K., Gomez, V., and Grob, A. (2013, August). Personality similarity and life satisfaction in couples. Journal of Research in Personality. 369-375. Doi: 10.1016/j.jrp.2013.03.002

 

 

 

Does Jungian psychology works best with creative people (high in openness)?

If people who are high in openness aren’t doing something creative then they are lifeless. According to Dr. Jordan Peterson his clients who are high in openness benefits particularly to depth psychological approaches and especially Jungian approach. When he tries Jungian ideas on clients who are high in openness it works “like a charm” and it “fits right in with their psyche”, yet if the client is a fundamentally conservative person (low in openness and high in conscientiousness) Jungian ideas just doesn’t click. That may be because the Jungian approach is aesthetic and creative and a lot of people aren’t either of those things.

(Peterson, B. J., Essential Truth3 Mar. 2018, “Jordan Peterson: What low-status highly creative men need”)

Supervision Relationships

In Supervision relations, we find two actors: the auditor and the audited; these relations are created to perform revision and, of course, supervision chances amongst peers and teams. Common supervision chains are:

    • Causal-Determinist supervision chain (C-D; Process, Positivist, Static):
      • ENTp( ILE) → ISTj (LSI) → ESFp (SEE) → INFj (EII) → ENTp (ILE)
    • Dialectical-Algorithmic supervision chain (D-A; Process, Negativist, Dynamic):
      • ISFp (SEI) → ENFj (EIE) → INTp (ILI) → ESTj (LSE) → ISFp (SEI)
    • Vortical-Synergetic supervision chain (V-S; Result, Positivist, Dynamic):
      • ESFj (ESE) → ISTp (SLI) → ENTj (LIE) → INFp (IEI) → ESFj (ESE)
    • Holographical-Panoramic supervision chain (H-P; Result, Negativist, Static):
      • INTj (LII) → ENFp (IEE) → ISFj (ESI) → ESTp (SLE) → INTj (LII)

These chains melodically form to assure flawless performances and will help teamwork provide clear analysis and high-quality work. Slinko, in the “The key to heart – Socionics,” explains that Supervision Relations may appear very strict. Since they are formed by a Supervisor’s dominant function, which coincides with the supervisee’s most vulnerable and painful function making it a not symmetric relation, this sounds a bit overwhelming, but can prove to be satisfactory and easy-going if respect and help act here. Slinko, says about this construct:

“Supervisor can monitor every step the Supervisee takes, while Supervisee is powerless to resist this influence: all of his strong features “drown” in the appropriate function of the Supervisor.”– O.B Slinko

The explanation shows a dark side, of course, it is a relationship of power, where they tend to avoid any aggressive behavior, partners need to be very respectful, and also they need to remember they are, after all, a team. Slinko worries and fears that a Supervisee might try to resist and even fight back to the point of using physical force if the Supervisor forgets to rely on teamwork.

This situation is reinforced in the explanation provided by Laima Stankevichyute, in their work “Intertype relations” and tells us the following:

“These are the type of relations where a person is most vulnerable and unable to defend themselves. The Supervisor, drawing from his first element, frequently hits the third element of the supervisee.”

Somehow being put in a position of power could also be quite overwhelming for the Supervisor. Unless clear and established rules take part, they need to base all their actions on the human and empathy elements at all times. The Supervisee in Exchange most always be firm on their decisions and choices but also be open to positive suggestions.

The new detail about Supervision Relationships is brought up by Ekaterina Filatova, in her book “Art of understanding yourself and others”: Filatova explains the asymmetry in these relations focusing on the fact of vulnerability on one towards the other:

“In this case, the functions of two people are positioned such that the most powerful function of one (called the auditor) presses on the vulnerable function of the other (called the audited). But, in turn, the audited does not have direct access to the weak function of the auditor.”

Given these explanations, it is clear that Supervision Relationships are necessary, but a fair game and set rules are the key elements to make sure work goes on flawless and undisrupted; otherwise, constant conflict amongst peers might get in the way.

By:  Dr. Graciela González Calderón-Psychologist

Bibliography

Activity Relationships

Activity Relations are one of the top relations we can use with little to no supervision in Socionics. Partners work together, achieve together, act together, and will prove to be a great asset in any team. They strive to provide mutual assistance, but only if each partner has their chores done and if the way they work coincides and is enjoyed by both partners, which in that case will set the table for them to become focused on the same goal.

Meged and  Ovcharov tell us that possibly the work methods may don’t match Activity Relations partners. They say partners will make higher demands of each other, and unnecessary disputes and mutual frustration will start to take up space and time and will even go as far as causing emotional exhaustion. However, this could be the main issue with these relations.

These relations can be found amongst the following types:

    • INTj (LII, Ti-Ne) – ISFp (SEI, Si-Fe)
    • ENTp (ILE, Ne-Ti) – ESFj (ESE, Fe-Si)
    • INFp (IEI, Ni-Fe) – ISTj (LSI, Ti-Se)
    • ENFj (EIE, Fe-Ni) – ESTp (SLE, Se-Ti)
    • INTp (ILI, Ni-Te) – ISFj (ESI, Fi-Se)
    • ENTj (LIE, Te-Ni) – ESFp (SEE, Se-Fi)
    • INFj (EII, Fi-Ne) – ISTp (SLI, Si-Te)
    • ENFp (IEE, Ne-Fi) – ESTj (LSE, Te-Si)

I.D. Vaisband, in publications on Socionics, provides a much brighter look on Activity Relations: “Contrary to the relations of duality, these relations do not have a trace of jealousy.” The fact that jealousy is out of the picture tells us that they perhaps won’t be so competitive. He does mention that there may be certain tension due to the absence of full compensation, so always make sure your activity partners are well compensated as a team. Making no distinctions as a partner is always objective, while the other way is irrational.

Gulenko in the “Criteria of Reciprocity” shares with us some tips on how we can give an extra kick into making these relations flow easily and avoid any issues:

“Partners should strive to spend some time alone, away from each other, as too much activation will exhaust them emotionally, potentially leading to a nervous breakdown. Remember that due to the strong activation effect, both (partners) may over-dramatize problems.”

Keeping partners busy and organized seems to be the critical element in these relations, and, authors Eugene Gorenko and Vladimir Tolstikov in “Nature of self,” made a high definition on how well these relations can work if well managed:

“Typically, these relations keep both partners in a happy, excited mood. Communication is energetic and leaves a vivid impression. Partners get along especially well if they have a common task.” – Not too shabby, huh?

As you can see, their issues rely on too much work, too many emotions, and so on. Activity Relations are most stable when the interaction is light and pleasant. It also helps to have other types of relations around to merge with them, such as Duality Relations. Additionally, it is beneficial to make sure both partners are always busy.

It is essential to understand that Activity Relations in teamwork will provide something other relations make lack: motivation and example, as they are visibly significant together if the circumstances allow. Sometimes people only need to see others working well, getting along, and getting things done. They will vicariously learn this behavior, feeling motivated, and learning new ways to interact with their team members and partners.

By:  Dr. Graciela González Calderón-Psychologist

Bibliography

Business Relations

In Socionics, Business Relations are referred to as “look-alike” relations, mainly because this is how they will work the best: they can merge and transform its members to make things happen or work flawlessly.  Business Relations exist between the following types:

    •  INTj (LII, Ti-Ne) – INFj (EII, Fi-Ne)
    • INTp (ILI, Ni-Te) – ISTp (SLI, Si-Te)
    • INFp (IEI, Ni-Fe) – ISFp (SEI, Si-Fe)
    • ISTj (LSI, Ti-Se) – ISFj (ESI, Fi-Se)
    • ESTj (LSE, Te-Si) – ESFj (ESE, Fe-Si)
    • ENTj (LIE, Te-Ni) – ENFj (EIE, Fe-Ni)
    • ENFp (IEE, Ne-Fi) – ESFp (SEE, Se-Fi)
    • ESTp (SLE, Se-Ti) – ENTp (ILE, Ne-Ti)

Quite often, we will see Business Relations develop when a mutual goal is at stake, and the members can not only support each other but compromise despite differences and exchange a wide variety of advice and requests. Since partners in business relations can easily reach a compromise, as well as exchange advice and requests, managers must make sure they provide proper time and space for these exchanges.

I.D. Vaisband says that Business Relations usually progress smoothly and calmly, mostly because partners will make efforts to understand each other and take advantage of each different abilities and creativity. He says: “Business relations are primarily based on logic. They make people more calculating, weighting, and evaluating everything from a pragmatic point of view.” And as we all know, reason leads to conclusions, and in this case, these are often excellent outcomes.

Laima Stankevichyute, in “Intertype relations” gives us a reality check amongst these relations, after all these are humans we are talking about and not everything will be a bed of roses all of the time:

 “After long-term interaction, they feel tired. When two ethical partners meet, they get tired of common emotions, two logical partners – of concentration and reasons. Ethical partners can then accuse each other of superficiality and frivolity. Logical partners seem stubborn to each other, incapable of communication, and insufficiently activating.”

What Stankevichyute says is that these relations are good, even excellent, but only for specified periods. Giving space to each partner to re-connect with themselves, apart from each other, will be necessary sometimes.

A.V. Bukalov and G. Boiko in “Why Saddam Hussein made a mistake, or what is Socionics?”, explain that while partners in Business Relations will understand each other well and are capable of interacting happily, they will at some point have different goals. These differences may cause them to put pressure on their role function and bring up unpleasant feelings towards each other.

To take advantage of these relations, Eugene Gorenko and Vladimir Tolstikov in “Nature of self,” mention a quick and essential reminder that can certainly be easy to remember: “If the goals are too different, there will be confusion and alienation. Interaction at very close distances should be avoided.” As long as we make sure goals are similar for all partners and enough “away time from each other” is given, we should have a great team that can accomplish high goals, be extremely creative, and even takes care of each other when someone is a bit down or lacks motivation.

Another great way to make sure these relations work is to avoid making partners struggle to be recognized in roles of authority or leadership and help them maintain relevance focusing on teamwork and not in individuality. Cooperation is critical when business relations are on the table, and we must make sure people are recognized equally.

By:  Dr. Graciela González Calderón-Psychologist

 Bibliography:

 

Quasi-Identical Relations

The name might imply that these are the easiest relations in Socionics, but wait until we explain them in detail, and then you’ll make up your mind. These relations are mirrors of each other amongst partners, and getting along with each other is almost as smooth as silk:

    • INTj (LII, Ti-Ne) – INTp (ILI, Ni-Te)
    • INFj (EII, Fi-Ne) – INFp (IEI, Ni-Fe)
    • ISFj (ESI, Fi-Se) – ISFp (SEI, Si-Fe)
    • ISTj (LSI, TI-Se) – ISTp (SLI, Si-Te)
    • ESTj (LSE, Te-Si) – ESTp (SLE, Se-Ti)
    • ESFj (ESE, Fe-Si) – ESFp (SEE, Se-Fi)
    • ENTj (LIE, Ti-Ni) – ENTp (ILE, Ne-Ti)
    • ENFj (EIE, Fe-Ni) – ENFp (IEE, Ne-Fi)

R.K. Sedih, in “Informational psychoanalysis” tells us about Quasi-Identical Partners that though they can certainly argue for hours, and may even disagree strongly with each other, “cooperation is easy, partners often help each other out. Quasi-identicals are usually positively predisposed towards one another.” This statement is quite an advantage, and as respect and teamwork will certainly prevail, regardless of any disagreement, serious conflicts don’t take much space in these relations.

A.V. Bukalov, G. Boiko, in their work “Why Saddam Hussein made a mistake, or what is Socionics?” claim partners in Quasi-identical relations are analogous in interests: “Collaborative work with the delimitation of spheres of activity can be quite successful in this pair.” So while they may encounter moments of confrontation and disagreement, if managed with familiarity and due respect, reminding partners about their goals, hard work, time, and efforts, these can be easy, breezy, and very useful relations.

V.V. Gulenko, in his work “Criteria of reciprocity,” explains that those who are not part of the relation will find necessary to adjust to the conversation style and to have a balanced discussion with these partners: “The same thought partners articulate in different ways. Because of the inability to prove anything to each other, misunderstandings and unproductive debates arise”, so be prepared to ask and reinforce explanations from them to make sure everyone is on the same page, and know that in Quasi-identical relations, partners tend to underestimate each other.

Gulenko and Molodtsev in “Introduction to socionics,” let us recognize that these partners will coexist peacefully if the partners are logical types. Still, if they are ethical, issues may arise, as they will often discuss their relations.

For these relations to always get along, discussions need to remain short, and to the point, the fact that partners need to focus on goals and logic may require a neutral head when heated interactions take place. When discussions happen, make sure arguments are logical, avoid haste in making important decisions, don’t pinpoint ethical matters, and help them be rational towards one another as their lack in the sense of reality might get in the way. Remain neutral and democratic when working with Quasi-identical partners: a sense of humor and an optimistic outlook on life will come a long way, strengthening these relations. After all, believe it or not, Quasi-Identicals will find peaceful topics for conversation or discussion, they will also come to a middle ground fast if the right conversations take place. When it comes to solving problems together, Quasi-Identical partners will quickly begin to understand that they are both thinking in very different ways.

By:  Dr. Graciela González Calderón-Psychologist

Bibliography:

 

Kindred Relations

Kindred Relations are comparative. Partners in these relations will have a similar role or function but will work opposite to each other’s chores. Also called Comparative Relations, these relations exist between the following types:

    • ENFj (EIE, Fe-Ni) – ESFj (ESE, Fe-Si)
    • ENTj (LIE, Te-Ni) – ESTj (LSE, Te-Si)
    • INFj (EII, Fi-Ne) – ISFj (ESI, Fi-Ne)
    • INTj (LII, Ti-Ne) – ISTj (LSI, Ti-Se)
    • INFp (IEI, Ni-Fe) – INTp (ILI, Ni-Te)
    • ISFp (SEi, Si-Fe) – ISTp (SLI, Si-Te)
    • ENFp (IEE, Ne-Fi) – ENTp (ILE, Ne-Ti)
    • ESFp (SEE, Se-Fe) – ESTp (SLE, Se-Ti)

One of the critical elements in Kindred Relations is the fact that these partners, having different creative functions, ideas, knowledge, and skills, will make up for each other graciously. Ekaterina Filatova better explains this in her book “Art of understanding yourself and others,” she says:

“Both partners perceive the world as the same due to having a base function as common. In cases where it comes to actual cooperation, these relations can seem not as fruitful. If partners have common interests, then they will take on the care for each other’s weakest functions.”

The previous explanation means that they may encounter issues here and there, of course. Still, they will strive and accomplish goals as long as they are seen as individuals and not forced to cooperate; however, they will do it as part of their nature anyways.

Kindred partners seek sanity when hard work is a stake; they keep each other company. They are alike in many matters, and they respect other person’s underlying attitudes, which are quite like their own, even if the details differ.

Eugene Gorenko and Vladimir Tolstikov, in “Nature of self,” explain that, though there is much resemblance, their aim is usually “tactful and polite with each other.” When it comes to internal differences, partners will have different points of view, that on occasions, may end up hurting each other’s weak functions. Therefore, always make sure that if you are managing kindred partners, they both share the same interests to avoid conflict a little too often.

Regarding frequent interactions, A.V. Bukalov and G. Boiko, mention in their book “Why Saddam Hussein made a mistake, or what is Socionics?” that in Kindred Relations partners seem to think similar and may understand each other very well. This understanding is because they enjoy discussing related topics and shared interests. We always appreciate this as part of their individuality and nothing more. The authors say: “How one acts is not how the other acts, but they cannot and do not know how to act otherwise.”

With Kindred partners, we need to work through any doubts or criticism with logic. People that form these relations can certainly go a long way, often striking up friendships, start dating, build families, and such. These are strong partnerships for sure, taking care of them should not be a hassle at all, as long as we respect them and appraise them separate from each other for who they are and can achieve as individuals.

Given time and space to work alone, these partners can admire one another and be useful for each other. Avoid making them compete against one another, and nothing beneficial can come from that but hurtful feelings and awkward interactions. Also, on these relations, avoid measuring partners with your standards, make time to understand their own in any case.

By:  Dr. Graciela González Calderón-Psychologist

Bibliography:

Mirror Relations

Mirror Relations are quite a learning experience to anyone involved, whether it is as partners or as spectators. In these relations, we can see people admire and resemble each other’s capabilities and abilities. Partners in Mirror relations will seek to learn from each other, almost methodically. Discussions in these relations are peaceful, honest, and respectful. They do not worsen relations. You can find Mirror Relations between the following types:

    • INFj (EII, Fi-Ne) – ENFp (IEE, Ne-Fi)
    • INTj (LII, Ti-Ne) – ENTp (ILE, Ne-Ti)
    • INFp (IEI, Ni-Fe) – ENFj (EIE, Fe-Ni)
    • INTp (ILI, Ni-Te) – ENTj (LIE, Te-Ni)
    • ISFj (ESI, Fi-Se) – ESFp (SEE, Se-Fi)
    • ISTj (LSI, Ti-Se) – ESTp (SLE, Se-Ti)
    • ISTp (SLI, Si-Te) – ESTj (LSE, Te-Si)
    • ISFp (SEI, Si-Fe) – ESFj (ESE, Fe-Si)

Because partners understand each other so well, their mutual admiration helps them remain interested in one another. They will be empathic and help each other. But not everything is joy and peace, there are a few conflicts that may arise, and Laima Stankevichyute does quite and introduction to these in her work “Intertype relations,” she says:

“Partners are frequently attempting to teach and re-educate one another. When two ethical mirror types meet, they may feel at unease around each other and keep some distance. When two logical types meet, they may start a dispute or sit together in uncomfortable silence. These types of relations are much more pleasant when a third type from the same quadra is present who is dual to one partner and activator to the other.” What Stankevichyute suggests may sound a bit conflicting, but in reality, it is not at all an uncommon solution.

A.V. Bukalov and G. Boiko explain further in their work, “Why Saddam Hussein made a mistake, or what is Socionics?” :

“Having compatible subtypes is important in these relations. The situation is more favorable if partners are both of leading function subtype or both of creative function subtype.”They explain that leading functions subtypes are necessary to prompt each of them to yield the other to accommodate to their creative function; doing this little trick will avoid their desire to correct one another, thus preventing conflict.

One last thing to mention is the fact that these relations could be a bit cold, as they often lack passion and have the tendency to be a bit mechanic; V.V. Gulenko better explains this on his work. “Criteria of reciprocity,” where he tells us that  because these relations tend to live by some kind of established order sometimes it might get a bit old and “rusty” sort of speak, Gulenko says:

“Transition to a new state of things is a rare occurrence that needs to be thought out and concluded. After this, the old system gets discarded, and a new one is accepted in its place. Mixed states and confusion between old and newly imposed order and agreements disturb mirror relations and undermine their fundamental quality – a tendency towards analysis.”

Given all these details, we can conclude that through Mirror Relations, we can experience positive outcomes in a wide array of projects as long as there is a set routine, concordance in admiration, set rules, and open disclosure of each other’ responsibilities and compromise. Partners in Mirror Relations can also learn a lot from each other, which makes them part of great teamwork that can resemble each others`abilities, which is always a plus.

By:  Dr. Graciela González Calderón-Psychologist

Bibliography:

Extinguishing Relations

Extinguishing relations are also called opposing, contrary, or relations of neutralization. It is common for members of these relations to have mutual interests and find common ground. However, they are not always understanding each other and often argue about petty details.  Their name attains from the fact that these relations tend to extinguish each other’s initiatives, so basically, their existence is based on “letting go.” Extinguishing relations exist between the following types:

    • INTp (ILI, Ni-Te) – ENTp (ILE, Ne-Ti)
    • INFp (IEI, Ni-Fe) – ENFp (IEE, Ne-Fi)
    • ISFp (SEI, Si-Fe) – ESFp (SEE, Se-Fi)
    • ISTp (SLI, Si-Te) – ESTp (SLE, Se-Ti)
    • INFj (EII, Fi-Ne) – ENFj (EIE, Fe-Ni)
    • INTj (LII, Ti-Ne) – ENTj (LIE, Te-Ni)
    • ISFj (ESI, Fi-Se) – ESFj (ESE, Fe-Si)
    • ISTj (LSI, Ti-Se) – ESTj (LSE, Te-Si)

Valentina Meged and Anatoly Ovcharov say that in these relations, support for one’s projects is hard to get, the primary positive interaction here is the exchange of opinions, suggestions, and requests. The authors say that these partners get along better when they work separately; otherwise, they will put too much attention to what the other is doing to diminish their efforts.

On the other hand, A.V. Bukalov and G. Boiko, in their book “Why Saddam Hussein made a mistake, or what is Socionics?” give us a simple explanation on why these relations are so neutralizing in a less serious note: “In these relations, the introvert extinguishes activity of the extravert.” As you can see, it is a relation based on evolving as a team, as partners, allowing the best attributes to take part and control, not based on a power trip as other authors may have made it look.

Also, V.V. Gulenko in “Criteria of reciprocity” talks about the “Comfortable discussion” that is possible between Extinguishing partners, where the debate is a vital tool of improvement, he says:

“The more active partner relays his opinions, while the less active one offers commentary and imparts his corrections. Each other’s peculiar thinking style feels like a pleasant surprise. However, in the presence of a third party extinguishment effect occurs – your partner impedes your attempts to develop a mutually interesting idea, arguing against it.”

This statement is excellent news for any team, as it is a unique opportunity to see a partnership built each other into a useful, more proactive and less hectic interaction. Criticism managed positively can undoubtedly bring out excellent outcomes when it comes to these relations. The best way to improve communication amongst Extinguishing Partners is by socializing in a narrow circle of friends or associates. They are not very comfortable when it comes to strangers; they can also go a long way by learning to accept criticisms of each other and take ideas and suggestions as incentives to grow and accomplish more thanks to and not despite each other.

By:  Dr. Graciela González Calderón-Psychologist

Bibliography:

Identical Relations

Identical relations refer to the ones that exist amongst identical personalities, e.g., SLI-SLI, SEE-SEE, LII-LII, etc. They are easygoing, reliable, and understanding. The communication between partners flows like a charm, and if trust and honesty are the base of these interactions, we will see great friendships form: they will help each other, root for each other, and celebrate each others’ successes.

You will find the same active relations by having partnered with common interests; also, they love to learn from a more experienced partner so that you will discover admiring the skills of one another. R.K. Sedih, in his work “Informational psychoanalysis,” tells us that these relations allow us to have very transparent partners. Still, you can’t always count on this to be a positive trait, as being wholly uncovered to each other could lead to feeling like there is a lack of intimacy and privacy, he says:

“It is difficult to communicate with a partner who can see right through you. This statement is especially of concern to non-dualized individuals who may have a lot of problems and little desire to display them.”

However, in certain areas, this transparency is a plus: teacher-student arrangements or friendships of medium level of comfort will benefit a lot from these, also can be beneficial to team leaders and their members for projects that require them to work as a team and not individually.

A.V. Bukalov and G. Boiko, in their book “Why Saddam Hussein made a mistake, or what is Socionics?” shows how these relations are so trusting they can flow towards intricate goals pretty quickly. “You look at the other person; it is as if you’re looking at yourself from the outside.” You know what to expect from every partner here. The authors also mention that understanding is the primary key to these relations as partners always know where the other is coming from; they know motives; they can see their reflection on each other and improve.

But not everything can be as perfect, and there is always a little fault to keep an eye on, the relation can become boring if there is no feedback or information from each other, you need to avoid having these relations become neutral. Ekaterina Filatova in the “Art of understanding yourself and others” pinpoints and explain this matter in detail, she says:

“Identical partnership between two intuitive types is more difficult because neither has much interest in the prosaic, but alas, necessary household duties – they find it much more interesting to talk about some exciting challenges. The relationship of this kind is more likely to be productive for creative work, especially if they have common spheres of activity.”

So, have them work on tasks where they can create, make changes, improve and discover, don’t give them routines or mechanical chores, exploit their abilities to the maximum by allowing them to make, think, design, and develop. You will undoubtedly get more from Identical Relations this way and, you can always rely on their confidence and honesty, which will make things go smoothly.

By:  Dr. Graciela González Calderón-Psychologist

Bibliography

 

 

 

Benefit Relations

Benefit relations are also known as “relations of request” or “social order.” The four rings of benefit are:

    • ENTp (ILE) → ENFj (EIE) → ESFp (SEE) → ESTj (LSE) → ENTp (ILE)
    • ISFp (SEI) → ISTj (LSI) → INTp (ILI) → INFj (EII) → ISFp (SEI)
    • INTj (LII) → ISTp (SLI) → ISFj (ESI) → INFp (IEI) → INTj (LII)
    • ESFj (ESE) → ENFp (IEE) → ENTj (LIE) → ESTp (SLE) → ESFj (ESE)

These relations represent those that take place under particular circumstances. According to Meged and Ovcharov: “The benefactor perceives his partner as someone who needs his protection, patronage, and advice.” This perception could be perceived easily as a one-way relationship where someone has the need to feel useful and reaches out to someone (a beneficiary) to understand and help them in difficult situations.

Often, in these relationships, the benefactor can partially take on the execution of the work responsibilities of both parties. Still, this doesn’t mean it can last forever; the benefactor will grow tired over time and will most likely lose interest in his partner.

O.B. Slinko, in the “The key to heart – Socionics” claims that the beneficiary is at a higher social development level than the benefactor, however, is assigned a subordinate role in this specific relationship, in this case, the benefactor is as if always asking or requesting something from the beneficiary. Sadly, the benefactor does not fully hear the recipient and does not look into their problems, so, by seeking to fulfill the social order, the beneficiary will leave the direct influence of the benefactor.

Given the fact that this relation is not reciprocal, people involved in teams with these types of relationships can either take advantage of beneficiaries or pay proper attention to benefactors, and use their lack of reciprocity, if constant, as a flaw.

In “Criteria of reciprocity,” Gulenko mentions how to overcome breaking points such as tension in communication: they need to gain each other’s trust, avoid catching them off guard to supervise their actions, and taking time to cool off.

Gulenko also says that “Communication is not as much interesting as it is activating and mobilizing.” He refers to the benefactor when he is critical of the opinions and behaviors of their partner, mainly when they seem to be ignoring or not noticing something, making it necessary to bring the matter to his attention. Cleary, one person in these relations, makes the decisions, and the other one follows, but not in a very conventional way. These relationships work as long as people are precise. Assistance needs to be understood and perceived as such, not as a role of one team member only.

If you are supervising a team and benefit relations begin to appear, make sure beneficiaries and benefactors are clear of each others’ responsibilities,  help is thanked and appreciated, and honesty prevails at all times.

By:  Dr. Graciela González Calderón-Psychologist

Bibliography

Semi-Duality Relations

When it comes to semi dual relations, these need patience and time. These relationships will appear to flow miraculously at first. They may even make you think they will do so without much effort. Still, the truth is they are no programmed robots that will always act and feel the same. These are people and communication; healthy communication is always necessary. Semi-Duality relations, also known as partial or incomplete duality, exist between the following types:

    • INTj (LII, Ti-Ne) – ENFj (EIE, Fe-Ni)
    • ENTp (ILE, Ne-Ti) – ISTp (SLI, Si-Te)
    • INFp (IEI, Ni-Fe) – ESFp (SEE, Se-Fi)
    • INTp (ILI, Ni-Te) – ESTp (SLE, Se-Ti)
    • ENTj (LIE, Te-Ni) – INFj (EII, Fi-Ne)
    • ESFj (ESE, Fe-Si) – ISTj (LSI, Ti-Se)
    • ISFj (ESI, Fi-Se) – ESTj (LSE, Te-Si)
    • ISFp (SEI, Si-Fe) – ENFp (IEE, Ne-Fi)

“They need to surprise each other,” V.V Gulenko says, this author has an obvious description of how semi-duals behave:

Semi-dual relations contribute to the preservation of one’s individuality. While they may consult with each other, each leads their affairs. Relations can be well managed and tend to self-correction”. Gulenko tells us to be patient and not force events, Dual and Semi dual relations with accommodating will work as long as we give them room to grow and breathe freely.

Gulenko, in his work “Criteria of reciprocity,” calls these relations “Cautious comfort,” and though the name can even sound a bit romantic, it’s far from what it may imply. He says that partners may be afraid to get closer as they fear that by doing so, comfort will dissipate. This insight is quite a breathtaking view of the author; he explains these relations flow pleasantly for some time, but there is an influx point where these partners don’t know how to proceed next because they may avoid discussions.

“At times, partners privately take note of some unpleasant moments in the behavior of each other. However, these unpleasant moments and hurdles are often not discussed openly and not brought up to the attention of the partner”.  Says Gulenko.

Socionics.com has a description that includes interesting facts and details that the other authors failed to cover, especially with Semi-Duality partners. In essence, they say that while usually, semi duality partners have no problems in understanding each other, this only happens when things are set up “in the paper,” so some type of contract needs to be involved. The website claims the following:

Semi-Duals, especially if they are different in gender, can show interest in each other…however, when they feel like they are halfway to complete understanding, one of them usually does something that ruins all established harmony.”

Last but not least, Laima Stankevichyute in “Intertype relations” gives us a head-up regarding misunderstanding Semi-duals, saying that though “lack of understanding that may occur very suddenly and unpredictably,” reconciliation is usually quick and easy. What we need to know is that mishaps can occur suddenly for no apparent reason and will make both partners feel unsure of how to proceed further, and may blame one another. To play it safe, maybe mediators could come in handy when these altercations take place.

By:  Dr. Graciela González Calderón-Psychologist

Bibliography

  • Descriptions on Relationship Types by Socionics.com. Accessed on November 17th, 2019 at 6:01 pm via http://www.socionics.com/rel/sdl.htm
  • Gulenko, V.V. V.V. Gulenko “Criteria of reciprocity” quoted in English in https://www.the16types.info/vbulletin/content.php/89-Semi-2
  • Stankevichyute, Laima. “Intertype relations” quoted in English in https://www.the16types.info/vbulletin/content.php/89-Semi-2

Duality Relationships

Duality Relationships will complement each other peacefully and make up for each other when one lacks ability or motivation; they work together and assume responsibilities along way beyond being partners. Lyme Stankevichyute says about Duality Relations in their work “Intertype relationship”: “The best and most necessary for man is the ratio of additions.” Referring to being complementary to each other and protect one another. Stankevichyute claims that being able to count on another helps us feel safe and secure, which in return will translate into “happy to work” and think in a place where trust and confidence prevails.

Duality Relations allow people to experience self-worth through teamwork and companionship because they know that their efforts will be appreciated. However, we need to understand that though between complementary is no conflict, there will be misunderstandings at some points as we are all humans. These misunderstandings are prone to occur at the beginning of the relationship but will get better in time.

Gulenko (1989) speaks about these fairly easy-going relations and refers to the primary matter, saying that “because of this lack of conflict, the result is that your dual pairs seem to fade into the background when amongst other people. They seem to be too simple and ordinary, and thus not deserving of your attention.” They can be merged too well with the background, and not in the right way.

Providing more insight about this matter, Gulenko later adds that because dual pairs rarely have conflicts, and that these are quickly and painlessly resolved, Douala not only fits into the background but may be hard to spot in the crowd. “Duale seems too simple and understandable, and therefore not worthy of attention,” he says.

Make sure they are cooperative with each other and discuss matters freely; this is key for a well-oiled communication machine amongst Duality relationships. Anatoly Grechinsky and Tatiana Pedan do share with us a bit of insight on this matter, saying that:

“We need a duality, we subconsciously expect and are aggressively seeking it and finding it surprised. What is happening to us? We become different: more confident, cheerful, kind, sympathetic, stronger, in a word, better, life – emotionally and intellectually richer or brighter.”

This insight is an honest point of view as it gives us proof of how essential Duality Relations are in everyday interactions and how these can provide projects with a humanistic approach to matters. Some other relationships might find not close to freely engaging.

To make us even more explicit about the great asset Dual Relations are to a team, Ekaterina Filatova, in her book “The Art to understand themselves and others” says:

“We have already mentioned that this – the most favorable combination of psychological types. Their relations are called dualization, or a full complement. It is obvious that any of us the most favorable relationship can arise is with the person from whom the asymmetry function is complementary.”

So, if you make sure you give them enough credit, value their efforts and avoid alienating their issues when they occur, Dual Relations provide a trusting and confident peace you can rely on at all times.

By:  Dr. Graciela González Calderón-Psychologist

Bibliography

Conflict Relationships

We must first understand that Socionics and MBTI are different, and they assign letters to each type differently, too. To start our road into understanding Conflict Relationships, we first need to where these relationships are found amongst the 16 Types.

These relations exist between the following types only:

    • INTj (LII, Ti-Ne) – ESFp (SEE, Se-Fi)
    • INTp (ILI, Ni-Te) – ESFj (ESE, Fe-Si)
    • INFp (IEI, Ni-Fe) – ESTj (LSE, Te-Si)
    • INFj (EII, Fi-Ne) – ESTp (SLE, Se-Ti)
    • ISTp (SLI, Si-Te) – ENFj (EIE, Fe-Ni)
    • ISFp (SEI, Si-Fe) – ENFj (LIE, Te-Ni)
    • ISTj (LSI, Ti-Se) – ENFp (IEE, Ne-Fi)
    • ISFj (ESI, Fi-Se) – ENTp (ILE, Ne-Ti)

After getting these basics, we can start defining what these conflicts are and how they are perceived. According to psychologists Valentina Meged and Anatoly Ovcharov (2011), these are the most difficult relationships. They make it very clear: trying to impose their views on each other and avoiding each other’s value to the team. Additionally, they will continuously strive to point out errors and flaws on one another, are often found arguing, disagreeing, and trying to diminish each other’s opinions. When there are conflict relationships, even jokes and compliments are misperceived, which makes people undervalued, offended, and angry.

Another problematic thing the authors mention is that how things start with them may not be what one would expect; “while dating and still maintaining some psychological distance, conflict partners are often sympathetic to each other, admire each other’s strengths, talk about their interests, exchange their opinions. When they transition to more frequent contact, mutual irritation, and misunderstandings arise. It is advisable to adhere to traditions and discuss all changes beforehand. Only careful attitude to each other can save this relationship”.

Conflict relations are a handful in any type of environment. Not only will they have issues with each other, but they will also be unable to avoid getting on each other´s way and will try hard on making the other look weak, disposable, or ignorant. These relationships are constant battles that will make anyone feel frustrated and lost.

V.V. Gulenko  talks about the “Criteria of reciprocity,” and there he provides us with a few suggestions on how to make these relations work better, some of these tips are:

    • Strictly divide duties among yourselves and carry them out according to a firm schedule/plan.
    • Be rational, and avoid making your feelings rive your relations with each other, put goals ahead.
    • Use humor and jokes to uplift each other’s moods, but do it carefully and avoid any sarcasm.
    • Do not allow any mediators into your relations.
    • Make it a tradition to celebrate the most pleasant moments of your relationship.
    • Help each other in the most challenging moments.

Also, to help work with conflict relations, Ekaterina Filatova “Art of understanding yourself and others” says: “It is clear that in these relations, partners can sympathize with each other only when they are at a considerable distance. Each is attracted by the strong function of the other partner, in the sphere of which he is most vulnerable and unsure of himself.” This affirmation means that even though these relations are intended to be disruptive, they may understand each other a lot better if they are at a distance, where they can take advantage of each others´abilities and avoid interacting with their flaws.

By:  Dr. Graciela González Calderón-Psychologist

Bibliography

Super-ego Relations

In the case of Super-ego Relations, we find a fascinating interaction that can be compared to a Monet painting: from a distance; they appear to be pleasant and easy-going, even friendly. Still, as you get closer to their interactions, you will see the experience of a very passive rivalry between these partners.

When there is a certain amount of ego involved amongst personalities is always hard to reach a neutral ground, so it is advised to keep a close look into these interactions when it comes to teamwork. Otherwise, we might encounter some sort of battlefield: make sure you provide them with tools and space to try to readjust to one another, seek common ground, and achieve a healthy balance. It is always easier to make sure you pinpoint them in the early stages. Superego Relations can be found amongst these types:

    • INFj (EII, Fi-Ne) – ISTj (LSI, Ti-Se)
    • INTj (LII, Ti-Ne) – ISFj (ESI, Fi-Se)
    • ISFp (SEI, Si-Fe) – INTp (ILI, Ni-Te)
    • INFp (IEI, Ni-Fe) – ISTp (SLI, Si-Te)
    • ENTp (ILE, Ne-Ti) – ESFp (SEE, Se-Fi)
    • ENFp (IEE, Ne-Fi) – ESTp (SLE, Se-Ti)
    • ENTj (LIE, Te-Ni) – ESFj (ESE, Fe-Si)
    • ENFj (EIE, Fe-Ni) – ESTj (LSE, Te-Si)

Since there is a psychoanalytic factor, we can resort to the description provided by R.K. Sedih in “Informational psychoanalysis”:

“The name of this type of relations corresponds well to its structure: Ego block of one partner interacts with the Superego block of the other partner. In most cases, this interaction does not get past the level of acquaintances. Partners feel as if slightly restricted by each other. As a result, their interaction is somewhat shallow.”

We cannot expect more than a professional relationship between Superego partners, which in return could be very beneficial to your team, allowing them to focus on what they are good at, as long as you provide a very structured and organized environment.

V.V. Gulenko, in his work “Criteria of reciprocity” tries to give us some sort of upbeat look into Superego relations, as they seem a bit distant, saying that they “are characterized by the ability to sensitively capture the state and motivations of the partner at large communicative distances.” If we are clever, we can foresee these situations and make the most of their ability to read each other, to understand each other, and use their skills and abilities, considering that: listening and acting on time are appropriate.

And, last but not least, there is an excellent piece of advice from Eugene Gorenko and Vladimir Tolstikov in “Nature of self.” They say we can rely on Superego Relations easily because of their interaction, which is very similar to Kindred Relations: “Each can offer his or her shoulder and offer help in matters that the other partner struggles with.”

They can certainly serve as that extra eye to look into each other and improve. However, they are best left working individually, to each their own, and allowing time and space for professional exchanges that can emphasize their ability to catch what the other may have missed.

By:  Dr. Graciela González Calderón-Psychologist

Bibliography

Mirage Relations

Also called Illusionary, Mirage Relations are relatively good when partners are attentive to each other and offer mutual sympathy. Empathy is the key element here to achieve goals and make the most of these partnerships. When the views and interests of mirage partners are overseen, you will most likely get issues and discussions over small and petty things. However, they will be quickly forgotten.  These illusionary relations exist between the following types:

    • INTp (ILI, Ni-Te) – ENFp (IEE, Ne-Fi)
    • IEI (INFp, Ni-Fe) – ILE (ENTp, Ne-Ti)
    • LII (INTj, Ti-Ne) – ESTj (LSE, Te-Si)
    • EII (INFj, Fi-Ne) – ESFj (ESE, Fe-Si)
    • ENFj (EIE, Fe-Ni) – ISFj (ESI, Fi-Se)
    • ENTj (LIE, Te-Ni) – ISTj (LSI, Ti-Se)
    • ISFp (SEI, Si-Fe) – ESTp (SLE, Se-Ti)
    • ISTp (SLI, Si-Te) – ESFp (SEE, Se-Fi)

Mirage relations have a relaxing way of communication, filled with moral support and assistance for and from each other. When empathy is missing is when you will not be getting the best of these partners as a lack of understanding, motives, goals, and actions will get in the way of achievement.

O.B. Slinko, in the “The key to heart – Socionics,” offers a description that makes mirage partner seem snobby or a bit egocentric, the author says that a mirage partner: “demobilizes and softens you, resulting in a state of mental and physical relaxation. His speech is pleasing to you, but it is difficult to grasp its meaning.”

One can´t avoid imagine a Mirage partner as an unattainable creature. The author also says that “willful effort is required to maintain an active dialogue between mirage partners,” so make sure they are always on the same page, make sure there isn´t much room for random interpretations.

Clear, and to the point, Laima Stankevichyute writes in their work “Intertype relations” about Mirage Relations:

“Lacking sincerity, these relations become boring. An ethical partner accuses the logical partner in “logical egoism,” while logical partner accuses ethical partner in carelessness and frivolity.”

So, what positive outcome can come from these relations? V.V. Gulenko and A.V. Molodtsev do an outstanding job describing these “relations of relaxation” in their book “Introduction to Socionics.” They explain that these relations are comfortable for family life, but ineffective in everyday activity: “It feels comfortable to sit around, rest, and discuss extraneous issues with one’s mirage partner.”

So, we can safely assume that partners in Mirage relations perhaps treat each other as siblings, with ups and downs, caring for each other as much as they hassle and disturb one another, but at the end making sure things work, and work well for the sake of the group.

One will lead while ignoring the other, much like a sibling relationship. Illusionary partners will agree on how they interact with the world but not on the views they have of it; they are not good getting too close to each other, so make sure they have their own time and space at all times. Other than that, you will get a compromise relation at all times.

By:  Dr. Graciela González Calderón-Psychologist

 Bibliography:

 

ESFJ

According to the MBTI model, the ESFJs are mainly oriented towards extraverted feeling (Fe). This feeling reveals higher interpersonal skills, tending to concentrate on others, and trying to understand them, treating harmony between individuals as a priority.  Secondarily, the introverted sensing (Si) composes this type’s subjective perspective for problem-solving, based on relating and comparing previous experiences to new ones. These are the main ‘cognitive functions’ that characterize the ESFJ type. The model extends to other functions considered inferior or/and unconscious, summing up to 8 cognitive functions.

ESFJs are described by Dario Nardi[1] as having in general good understanding of people’s emotions and thoughts, being supportive and inclusive. They are also reported to be attentive and focused, valuing welfare.

Some characteristics of ESFJs pointed by Kelly, Barbara, and Paul D. Tieger[2] are the need for closure, well-defined schedule, and guidelines. They prefer practical tasks and like to follow a routine. For the Tieger family, ESFJs might have a hard time dealing with change and challenges; they are interested in network and practical applications of information. ESFJs also like to make decisions and lead but tend to become demanding if under stress.

According to David Keirsey,[3] ESFJs are inclined to economy, goods and services arrangement, sales, hospitality, ceremonies, and everything that has to do with service occupations. Keirsey emphasizes their role as providers and focuses on conserving cultural and moral values, observing and respecting laws, hierarchies, and ceremonies. They are also described as caring, friendly, expressive, concrete, stoical, pessimistic, hardworking, loyal, and attentive to detail. ESFJs also value teamwork, are highly sociable, quick to observe people’s behaviors and sense of humor, fond of gossip, are ready to judge, and take critique from others seriously. As parents, ESFJs tend to be devoted but strict, making sure their kids have everything needed and learn to take responsibilities seriously.

Other characteristics of ESFJs reported by Isabel and Peter B. Myers[4] is their materialistic side, yearn for practical experiences, and for feeling needed. Lastly, ESFJs are the most adaptable to routine and the most inclined to a pediatric field between all types.

By: Regina Burde- “Someone who likes to explore human behavior, be it through the perspective of arts or science.”

Bibliography

[1] Nardi, D. (2011, August 11). Neuroscience of Personality: Brain Savvy Insights for All Types of People. Radiance House. 1.0 edition.

[2] Tieger P. D., Tieger, B. B., and Tieger K. (2014, April 15). Do What You Are: Discover the Perfect Career for You Through the Secrets of Personality Type. Little, Brown Spar. 5th edition.

[3] Keirsey, D. (1998). Please Understand Me II: Temperament Character Intelligence. Prometheus Nemesis Book Company. 1 edition.

[4] Myers, I. B., and Myers P. B. (1980). Gifts Differing: Understanding Personality Type. Davies-Black Publishing. 1 edition.

How do you befriend an Enneagram Type 9 person?

Nines always look for elements of commonality that can bring people together. Therefore, to win their friendship, you need to find common ground with them. For example, they like those people who have accepted themselves and others with their differences. Also, while Nines are friendly and personable, there is a seriousness of purpose about them. Consequently, they choose friends that are highly principled and virtuous.

(Russel Rowe, 2009-2013)

High in Conscientiousness (Organized/Efficient)

People classified as high in Conscientiousness tend to act more dutiful, systematical, highly analytical, and strategical. Like described by Jordan B Peterson[1], competent and able to make relatively accurate plans to life goals, mainly in the academic field. Conscientiousness can also be divided into two other categories, which are Industriousness and Orderliness, with Industriousness being connected to hardship, diligence and focus; and Orderliness which relates to the adherence to rules and structure and which is more common to conservative thinking.

According to Kendra Cherry[2], conscientious people are highly premeditative, composed, achievement-driven, and organized. They like fulfilling their schedule and give preference to essential tasks. This trait is also described by Christopher J. Soto[3] as an accurate predictors of attainment and health-related outcomes. They are better students and employees; and have a higher life expectancy, resultant from being more careful when it comes to developing healthy habits, Soto adds.

This trait has been intimately associated to success in integrity test (Ones, Viswesvaran, & Schmidt, 1993, 1995), employee quality survey (Michigan Department of Education, 1989) and studies about the positive influence on spouse’s will to succeed on their career (Solomon & Jackson, 2014). They are also characterized by David C. Funder[4] as remorseful in case of not achieving (Fayard, Roberts, Robins, & Watson, 2012) and even more if unemployed (Boyce, Wood, & Brown, 2010); are usually not popular (van der Linden, Scholte, Cillessen, te Nijenhuis, & Segers, 2010) and not creative (Robert & Cheung, 2010).

Other characteristics of Conscientiousness reported by Robert R. McCrae and Paul T. Costa Jr.[5] were rationality, knowledge, tendency to perceive themselves as efficient, self-conscious, and highly attached to moral standards.

 

By: Regina Burde- “Someone who likes to explore human behavior, be it through the perspective of arts or science.”

Bibliography

[1] Peterson, J. [Jordan B Peterson]. (2017, October 7). 20 Minutes on UnderstandMyself.com [Video file]. Retrieved from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4IdzC6mJzLA

[2] Cherry, K. (2019, August 26). The Big Five Personality Traits. About, Inc. (Dotdash). Retrieved from: https://www.verywellmind.com/the-big-five-personality-dimensions-2795422

[3] Soto, C. J. (2018). Big Five Personality Traits. ResearchGate. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/324115204_Big_Five_personality_traits

[4] Funder, D. C. (2015, October 1). The Personality Puzzle. W. W. Norton & Company. Seventh edition.

[5] McCrae, R. R. and Jr, P. T. C. (2003). Personality in Adulthood: A Five-Factor Theory Perspective. Guilford Press.

High in agreeableness (Accommodating/Friendly/Compassionate)

People classified as high in agreeableness tend to be considerate, kind, generous, and cooperative. They genuinely care about other people and their feelings, which makes them more likable and trustworthy. They are also often religious and generally trusting individuals. Agreeableness has been divided into two different categories, which are Compassion and Politeness. While Compassion is more about people who are moved by empathy and adepts of liberal and egalitarian ideals, Politeness is connected to honor, and people who are stronger in this trait also tend to be more conservative.

According to Jordan B. Peterson[1], their focus is on other people. Because they are so caring to the point of putting other people’s interests ahead of their own, they are often exploited, which consequently causes them to feel hurt and distressed. As indicated by Kendra Cherry[2], they are also extremely selflessness and philanthropic. Those characteristics all together were reported by Christopher J. Soto[3] as factors that lead them to more satisfying and harmonic close relationships. And their favorite activities include voluntarism, he added.

Individuals high in agreeableness were also pointed to be unlikely to: sound rude when speaking (Augustine et al., 2011); to smoke; to get in contact to what seems unpleasant (Bresin & Robinson, 2014); to have a lousy sense of humor or to have psychological diseases. The public scoring the highest is mostly composed of women (Paunonen, 2003). Although, despite the way the personality is called, agreeable individuals don’t always agree to everything. In a case, a decision can upset or scandalize someone they care about; they don’t think twice before refusing to do what might hurt them, as documented by David C. Funder[4].

 

By: Regina Burde- “Someone who likes to explore human behavior, be it through the perspective of arts or science.”

Bibliography

[1] Peterson, J. [Jordan B Peterson]. (2017, October 7). 20 Minutes on UnderstandMyself.com [Video file]. Retrieved from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4IdzC6mJzLA

[2] Cherry, K. (2019, August 26). The Big Five Personality Traits. About, Inc. (Dotdash). Retrieved from: https://www.verywellmind.com/the-big-five-personality-dimensions-2795422

[3] Soto, C. J. (2018). Big Five Personality Traits. ResearchGate. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/324115204_Big_Five_personality_traits

[4]Funder, D. C. (2015, October 1). The Personality Puzzle. W. W. Norton & Company. Seventh edition.

What are some of the negative shared traits of Enneagram Types 3 and 9?

Some of the negative shared traits of Threes and Nines are that they depend too much on external approval. Therefore,  they pursue goals that hold no real interest or personal meaning, just for gaining acceptance by others. Also, due to their ruthlessness, they can have difficulty attending to their deepest feelings. As a result, they can be complacent, disengaged and dissociated.

(Russel Rowe, 2003-20015)

Enneagram Type 9 (The Peacemaker)

The Peacemaker: We need one in every team and everywhere in the world. For example, Baron and Wagele (2009) shortly describe Type Nines as “motivated by the need to keep the peace, merge with others, and avoid conflict,” the world needs them to create and bring balance, just as much as we all need crisis and chaos to grow. Therefore, The Peacemakers are here to make everything better, to bring joy and stability.

Also, Peacemakers are here to observe, analyze, and fix what’s broken. Moreover, Riso and Hudson (1995) share a very detailed explanation of how Nines’ behavior works and how it can be a great asset in every team. Since Peacemakers are easygoing, self-effacing, accepting, trusting, and stable, they can reason a lot faster and better than any other personality type, they always think with a perfect of logic and empathy. Besides, they are good-natured, kind-hearted, and supportive of their mates. They are so emotionally wise that they can see when it will be better to use humor to maintain a peaceful environment.  Above all, they will avoid conflicts carefully; they don’t like useless disagreements, this is great, except when we find unhealthy Nine as, in that case, they can be complacent and minimize anything upsetting.

A Healthy Peacemaker is indomitable, all-embracing, can bring people together, and heal conflicts. That is to say, in “The Road Back to You: The Enneagram Journey to Self Discovery,” Morgan Cron and Stabile say that Peacemakers are: “Pleasant, laid back and accom­modating, they are motivated by a need to keep the peace.” Also, we’ve heard the same description from Riso and Hudson above, which in a way just proves that Nines are, and will be very reliable when it comes to their personality and abilities.

Now, we must mention the ordeals that may come along with unhealthy Nines. For example, Riso and Hudson (1987) are the ones that give us the bad news: unhealthy Nines will go too far to avoid all conflict, which sometimes may mean that they will overlook matters that may look like trouble. Also, Nines equate self-assertion with aggression; they feel that assertiveness sometimes threatens their union with others.  Additionally, they will repress their aggressive impulses to the point of ignoring them completely, which we know is emotionally unhealthy and may escalate in times of stress.

When Peacemakers inadvertently act aggressively, they simply deny it and work as if nothing happened, like it was a form of willful blindness. This dissociated behavior, along with their passivity and denials, could mean trouble if Nines are overworked and stressed. To avoid any issues, make sure you have one-on-one meetings with them, show they can trust you and that all humans err, and help them find the importance in the lessons of failure and times of crisis, they will appreciate this a lot and will pay in exceptional achievements.

By:  Dr. Graciela González Calderón-Psychologist

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Enneagram Type 8 (The Leader)

The Leader, or Asserter, is motivated by the need to be self-reliant, autonomous, and robust (Wagele and Baron, 2009). Therefore, they strive with all they got to make an impact on the world. Sometimes Eights are positive and selfless but occasionally egocentric depending on the surroundings, dogma, and details related to their upbringing. Overall, Type 8 will avoid appearing weak at all costs.

In “The Power of the Enneagram: The Riso-Hudson Enneagram Type Indicator,” they describe Leaders as powerful, aggressive, and self-confident. Consequently, assertiveness is a given quality in them; this makes them trustworthy in any team. Also, they say that Type eights are “confident, strong, assertive, protective, resourceful, straight-talking, and decisive” when healthy. At their best, Leaders are self-mastering, helping others improve their lives, becoming heroic, magnanimous, and magnificent (Riso and Hudson, 1995).

However, when not healthy, Eights can become a bit of an issue, they are proud and overbearing, and not everyone feels attracted to people who behave like they are better than others. Besides, when they are unhealthy, they want to control everything around them, becoming confrontational and intimidating; discussions can take a twisted turn with them because everything is a contest of wills, and sadly they seldom back down.

In “The Road Back to you: An Enneagram Journey to Self Discovery,” Morgan Cron and Stabile refer to Eights as “The Challenger,” and this is not gratuitous at all. Therefore, their Eights’ description says they are “Commanding, intense and con­frontational, motivated by a need to be strong and avoid feeling weak or vulnerable.” This description proves they thrive on being the most reliable links on the chain and need to feel ownership of processes and projects.

When working with Leaders, Riso and Huson (1987) give us plenty of advice and warnings. Since they have an aggressive personality and are mostly take-charge people who want to impose their wills, the best tasks they can be given are organizational.  Also, they can be great project managers and quality assurance managers. Because they are so strong-willed and forceful, they are the most difficult to deal with, but when they are healthy, their self-confidence will undoubtedly help them create very constructive environments.

Give Leaders tools and rules, train them in empathy, provide them time and space to understand not everything works or thinks like them, teach them how to use people’s strengths to their advantage, but don’t let them get too attached to their power. Always remind them that a team works because everyone feels they are essential, and that is their job to make sure everyone feels appreciated all the time.

In short, when unhealthy, make sure you listen first, but once they finish with the criticism, explain to them how empathy is essential, and they need to respect others for the abilities they offer to the team as others may not behave as they do.

 

By:  Dr. Graciela González Calderón-Psychologist

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Enneagram Type 7 (The Enthusiast)

The Enthusiast: When you work with a Seven you are getting yourself into a compelling relationship: Type Seven is the busy, productive type according to Riso and Hudson (1995), and Sevens are versatile, optimistic, and spontaneous, which are traits that come along with a lot of energy thrive. Playful, high-spirited, and practical, authors say they can also be overextended, scattered, and undisciplined, maybe because they need to do everything and be everywhere- the joy of the party, one may say-. Baron and Wagele (2009) say they are “motivated by the need to be happy and plan fun things.

The Enthusiasts are continually seeking new and exciting experiences, they need the adrenaline and the thrill, and this is great. However, they can become distracted and exhausted by staying on the go. They need someone to remind them to stop and breathe, to take some time to regroup and collect. When unhealthy, Riso, and Hudson (1987) describe them as “self-centered, demanding that others cater to their whims, dissipated escapists, and fly compulsively out of control. They typically have problems with superficiality and impulsiveness”. So they may appear as a bit immature and lack regard for others. If not managed appropriately, sometimes they even can boss others around, which then turns into an issue as they may come along as demanding, and this is not always taken positively.

When the Enthusiast shows their unhealthy habits, be careful, understanding, and don’t let this small issue grow too much; address it and let it go so things can run smoothly. Type Seven people get the ball rolling, play a great game, but do have the tendency to forget they are part of a team and might be different from them getting along with others.

When healthy, you will notice that Sevens focus their talents on worthwhile goals in a straightforward manner, and also accomplish things joyfully. Morgan Cron and Stabile (2016) describe The Enthusiasts as “fun, spontaneous and adven­turous.”Also, the authors say that Sevens “are motivated by a need to be happy, to plan stimu­lating experiences and to avoid pain,” this is a great recipe to love what you do, don’t you think?

It is essential to understand that even though Sevens could be a handful, it is their drive and willingness that makes them so talented. Such great team members will make the machines grind when others may feel tired; they will inject that extra shot of strength when things need to get done and finish.

When managing Enthusiasts, just make sure you let them know that when you ask them to consider others, it is only a reminder and that their efforts are well appreciated. Overall, Sevens are the “little engines” that we can always treasure because they lift us when we feel weak.

 

By:  Dr. Graciela González Calderón-Psychologist

Bibliography

 

Enneagram Type 6 (The Loyalist)

When you get the chance to interact and work with a Type 6 or Loyalist, you get a unique personality and someone you can undoubtedly rely on at all times. For example, According to Riso and Hudson (1995), The Loyalist likes commitment, security-orientation, working hard, and taking responsibility. Also, Type Six personalities are vital elements in a team, as they will always make sure things follow and go through as planned.

Morgan Cron and Stabile (2016) have a short but similar definition of Loyalists:

“Committed, practical and witty; they are worst-case-scenario thinkers who are motivated by fear and the need for security,”

Going back to Riso and Hudson, they describe unhealthy Type Sixes as:

Defensive, evasive, and highly anxious—running on stress while complaining about it. They are often cautious and indecisive but can also be reactive, defiant, and rebellious. They typically have problems with self-doubt and suspicion. At their best, healthy Sixes are internally stable, self-confident, and self-reliant, courageously supporting the weak and powerless”.

Given the above explanation, it is clear that Loyalists require a regular appraisal, they need to know their work is worth it and that they are appreciated for what they do. Otherwise, they might fall out of their element, and their self-criticism might be an issue. Additionally, Baron and Wagele (2009) say that Loyalists are always looking for approval, need to know they are being taken care of and avoid being seen as rebellious types.

Again Riso and Hudson (1987) give us a warning about The Loyalists when they explain what Healthy Sixes are:

Healthy Sixes’ strengths involve the ability to form strong emotional bonds with others. When healthy Sixes act, it is to everyone’s mutual benefit. They are committed to others, loyal and faithful friends, and they look for the same qualities from others. Average Sixes, however, look outside themselves too much for “permission” to act from an authority figure or belief system, which will tell them what to do.”

It is important to remember that these personalities require us to give them follow-up and assure them of the importance of their work regularly. Certainly,  this is something that can make or break how Six works as part of the team and the quality of their performance. And though, they may sound like really high maintenance people, their loyalty and hard work is by far, so worth it of that extra effort into letting them know how they make a difference and show them constant guidelines.  Overall, you get a dedicated teammate with a Loyalist, so you need to appreciate them as much as they will be loyal to you.

Be kind, give proper instructions, give them appropriate appraisal, create a dialog with them regularly, you will not regret it. Your team will undoubtedly benefit from what a Loyalist can bring to the table.

By:  Dr. Graciela González Calderón-Psychologist

Bibliography

Enneagram Type 5 (Investigator)

The Investigator or Type 5 is most definitely the intense, cerebral type of all Enneagram personalities. Therefore, Fives are alert, insightful, and curious. Moreover, these traits are vital in any team as they’ll drive all their efforts into little details others may overlook.

Baron and Wagele (2009) will describe Investigators in particular as: “Those who stand back and take time to view life objectively, when working with Fives, you will get a thorough understanding; perceiving causes and effects.” Also, integrity in Fives is immense: they do what they think is right and aren’t influenced by social pressure. Above all, they understand that value doesn’t come material possessions or status, and they remain calm in a crisis.

Riso and Hudson (1995), however, provide us with a grimmer look on Investigators, sort of speak:

They become detached yet high-strung and intense. Awkward and isolated, they lack interpersonal skills and can be cynical and eccentric”. However, the authors not only have such dark descriptions for Fives.  Also, they’re described as: “Visionary pioneers, ahead of their time, able to see the world in an entirely new way.”

In the Investigators, we find the strange beauty of someone so focused that they may appear chaotic. For example, an extraordinary genius and a madman who is delusional and excentric, could both co-exist in the same personality.

Like people who love finding truth and beauty, Investigators, according to Cron and Stabile (2016), feel motivated to acquire knowledge. Also, they conserve energy, prefer to avoid relying on others, and are excellent at developing complex ideas and skills. Besides, Fives work a lot better if they can concentrate, and their focus is undisturbed.

Riso and Hudson share great insight in “Personality Types Using The Enneagram For Self Discovery” (1987), telling that Type 5:

“Will become a visionary, profoundly comprehending the world, discovering something new, possibly a genius. Able to concentrate and get mentally involved: becomes knowledgeable, an expert. Innovative, produces precious, original ideas.”

Given this description, we can say that Investigators are independent and innovative. Also, they are extremist and intense, interested in science, into proving things as possible, reliable, and real. Certainly, the searches for truth in Investigators are clear. But, overall, people who get to work with this type need to make sure they understand the Investigator’s ideals, which are first, and foremost, derived by finding things realistic, becoming at some points reductionistic, and need to impose ideas on the facts.

Nonetheless, we need to be happy for the exceptional abilities we can find on a Five working on our team. Not so many people will enjoy discovering truth and answers to deliver a well researched and error-free project.

By:  Dr. Graciela González Calderón-Psychologist

Bibliography

 

 

Enneagram Type 4 (The Individualist)

The Individualist is one of the most conscious personality types in the Enneagram, although not conscientious necessarily. These individualists are romantic and reflective, with bright and detailed insights, not to mention, always on point.

In “The Road Back to You: An Enneagram Journey to Self-Discovery,” Morgan Cron and Stabile (2016) share a short explanation of the Individualist:

Creative, sensitive, and moody, motivated by a need to be understood, experience their oversized feelings, and avoid being ordinary.”

The previous description is quite an effortless way to describe them, but right. For instance, Fours are imaginative, and their brains are always on to something. Their minds are like grinds of a machine at all times. Besides, their moodiness comes along with the fact that they like to keep busy and also keep it to themselves. Therefore, they may frustrate with interruptions and reserve themselves because they dance to their own tune.

As mentioned above, since Type Fours are self-aware, sensitive, reserved, and quiet, it is essential to respect their limits and feelings. About this matter, Riso and Hudson (1987) provide us with a great explanation of the average Four (also known as Artists):

The artist and romantic, taking an imaginative-aesthetic orientation to life, expressing personal feelings through something beautiful. The artist gets self-absorbed, introverted, moody, and melancholy; feels different from others, exempt from living as others do: self- pitying and self-indulgent, fostering illusions about life and self. Decadent, a dreamer: impractical, unproductive, effete, and precious.”

Because of these traits, the same authors warn us about the issues that may come when working with an Individualist. For example, they could be left out as people may feel are not like by them, or they could be disrespectful when sharing their points of view, or even self-inhibiting. Also, Fours are paralyzed by emotions; however, in most cases, these are just biased perceptions; and  if one gets to share more time and get closer, these impressions will undoubtedly change.

Individualists are self-revealing, emotionally honest, and personal. For instance, with them, you get people you can trust as their honesty has no limits. Sometimes, they may be feeling vulnerable and defective, but don’t overwhelm them as they can also feel disdainful and exempt from ordinary ways.

According to Baron and Wagele (2009), the best way to get along with Individualists is to give them compliments. Also, they like when people support them, teach them to love and value themselves, respect their intuition and vision. Overall, avoid telling them they are over-sensitive or that they may be overreacting. Finally, always keep in mind that Fours are in touch with their feelings, more than most people, and they may feel things bigger than others.

By:  Dr. Graciela González Calderón-Psychologist

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Enneagram Type 3 (The Achiever)

The Achiever or Type Three people thrive on showing us what success looks like. For example, they are adaptable, intelligent, oriented to success, focus on their goals, and work hard to make their dreams a reality. That is to say, some of the best traits found on Achievers are, according to Riso and Hudson (1987), Type Three people, when healthy appear to be: “Inner-directed and authentic, everything he or she seems to be. Self-assured, energetic, adaptable, often physically attractive, and popular. Ambitious to improve self, becoming outstanding, a kind of human ideal, embodying widely admired qualities.”

Also, The Achiever needs to be ambitious, confident, and a hard worker. Overall, Achievers need to earn and portray an example of accomplishment and success as significant as the image they have of themselves. Therefore, one of their goals is being someone people look up to, so they cannot afford to miss these personality traits. We can also corroborate these traits in the book “The Road Back to You: An Enneagram Journey to Self-Discovery,” where Morgan Cron and Stabile tell us that Type Threes are “Success-oriented, image-conscious and wired for productivity, are motivated by a need to be (or appear to be) successful and to avoid failure.” However, we need to pay attention to the fact that the same goals are not for all of them; while some Achievers show motivation and want people to like them, others mean to become role models.

Also, Threes are confident, attractive, and charming. Certainly, according to Riso and Hudson (1995), Achievers are “Pragmatic chameleons, calculating, saying, and doing whatever “works” for them,” which may make them seem like a bit manipulative at their worst.

They are concerned about personal advancement. They pay attention to their looks and to other’s opinions of them. Baron and Wagele (2009) explain that Threes are not good at handling inefficiency and continuously compare themselves to others. Also, they struggle a lot to impress people and to feel admired by them, hence they could be seen as narcissistic.

When not at their best, we can find that Threes typically have problems with workaholism and competitiveness. It is also common for them to experience anxiety and panic attacks, mainly when they feel things get out of their control or when their expectations of themselves may not be met, they need to be able to stop, re-group, and re-start. On the other hand, at their best, healthy Threes are self-accepting, authentic, and everything they seem to be—role models who inspire others. To sum up, if you have an Achiever on your team, you can be sure they will do things aiming to stand out, they will not only comply with the bare minimum.

By:  Dr. Graciela González Calderón-Psychologist

Bibliography

 

Enneagram Type 2 (The Helper)

The Helper: The caring, interpersonal type. In the theory of Enneagram, Type Two personalities are empathetic, sincere, and warm-hearted. Therefore, they thrive on feeling useful, accommodating, and feel at ease when they know they are part of something bigger, or someone’s success or well-being.

Also, Helpers are friendly, generous, and self-sacrificing, nothing is ever too complicated when they feel part of an accomplishment, and they will do anything to make others happy and fulfilled. Still, of course, all these traits as givers can undoubtedly take a toll on them: they can also be sentimental, resort to flattering behavior a little too often, and let other people-pleasing take the best of them sometimes. For instance, In  “Personality Types Using The Enneagram For Self Discovery” (1987), Riso tells us that Helpers “actively lookout for the welfare of others — nurturing them, encouraging them, and empowering people to grow and discover their strengths.”

Further, Riso and Hudson (1995) in  “The Power of The Enneagram: The Riso-Hudson Enneagram Type Indicator (Version 2.0)“, define Helpers as:

“Possessive of others, doing things to be needed, they have hidden agendas and ulterior motives. Proud and self- deceptive, they can feel unappreciated and victimized, becoming manipulative and controlling. At their best: Unselfish and altruistic, they have unconditional love for others.”

As a result, given that definition, it is essential to understand that, though Helpers are useful and trustable team members, they will require micromanagement to some extent. Baron and Wagele (2009) also suggest being gentle when providing feedback or criticism. And last but not least, to draw lines and keep clear limits to make sure that everything they do for others remains inside professional behavior and not trespassing into a less than healthy relationship with others ( they will do things to be needed).

Overall, they typically have problems taking care of themselves. They are also warm, caring, mo­tivated  by a  need to be loved and needed,  and to avoid  acknowl­edging their own needs. Therefore, if you have Helpers amongst your team, make sure you check on them regularly and give self-care time, they may even have issues asking for time off, or even acknowledge when they need medical attention.

Certainly, Helpers are a great asset for any team: they will get things done, enjoy being part of something, and will work hard to achieve goals at all times. Also, a Helper can be trusted with deadlines, detailed oriented tasks, and essential responsibilities. Because Helpers always want others to like them, they can be great hosts, or represent the team or company; their confident personality makes it easy for others to love them and enjoy having them around. In short, they can relate to a wide variety of people; this trait is essential as it helps them connect and empathize easily and well with others.

By:  Dr. Graciela González Calderón-Psychologist

Bibliography

 

Enneagram Type1 (The Reformer)

The Reformer: According to Riso and Hudson (1995),  Reformers have solid principles and live in peace by acting guided by strong standards, traditions, and rules. When healthy, Riso and Hudson (1987) claim the Reformer becomes “wise, discerning, and tolerant.”Type One is the idealistic type, has a very well developed sense of right and wrong, and enjoys teaching others the path they find so comforting; they live up to their convictions. Also, they are always working hard on improving things around them; they are conscious of their behavior and strive to avoid making mistakes of any kind.

Reformers are well-organized, orderly, and meticulous. They have very high standards on everything they do, firmly believe in the work they do and its importance. Though this is an excellent quality, sometimes they may be too hard on themselves and others, as they forget to leave room for unexpected situations.

According to Morgan Cron and Stabile (2016), Reformers are ethical, committed, and reliable, driven by a  desire to live the right way,  improve the world, and avoid fault and blame, also, won’t settle for less than what they have set up as their expectation. Additionally, they can find themselves in times of “disintegration” when unhealthy behavior presents. At these moments, they can be forceful, judgmental, or condescending. People around them need to stay close listening to them but don’t put them in the spot about their harmful train of thought in these moments. On the contrary, people should praise their efforts and share their suggestions as possibilities, not solutions to “fix things” as they may see these types of comments as attacks or, in a less aggressive way, as problems that interfere with whom they are and what they expect of themselves.

Though they will always find ways to provide their best work and behave at their best behavior, they seem to experience problems with repressed anger and impatience, which might even be difficult for them to be empathic with others sometimes. At their best, healthy Reformers are wise, discerning, realistic, and noble, as well as morally heroic. If you have a Reformer in your team, you can be sure they will deliver excellent, detailed, and high-quality work, but they may be too demanding with themselves and others. They need constant reminders about resting, putting themselves in other people’s shoes and looking for time out to clear their heads to remain healthy and at peace.

Keep in consideration that Reformers wish only functional to the world, they thrive on being useful at all times. Since they have an influential inner critic, others need to be patient with them. At the same time, they search for that perfection they long so hard.

According to Baron and Wagele (2009), Reformers (also called Perfectionists) need to be encouraged to lighten up and laugh at themselves, as they tend to get uptight quickly. Though sometimes Reformers may look like they are justifying what they do and giving excuses, it is essential to remember their actions have a sense of purpose at all times.

By:  Dr. Graciela González Calderón-Psychologist

 Bibliography

Description of DISC trait for Dominance (D)

The individuals with Dominant personality, in short, are headstrong, authoritative, and bold. According to the DISC model, their strongest trait is a tendency to command. From other people’s perspective, they sometimes seem inconsiderate or even hostile, but behind that stereotype, there’s a performance-driven behavior and inviolable will to get things done. Dominants don’t want to lose their position as leaders because they believe they will be able to surpass any problem. Their overconfidence, overbearing, and lack of patience can sometimes be a problem. Still, a group led by them can benefit from the dynamism of their overall view and hardworking conduct, which includes multi-tasking and proactiveness.

As the most forceful and exigent personality of the DISC model, the Dominants like to engage in challenging activities, getting exposed to new situations and problems to solve. They won’t mind passing through hardship if it’s what it takes to prove themselves and their efficiency to fulfill each task one by one. Along with that, the rivalry is a powerful ingredient to make them flourish, bringing their will to succeed to a new level. They are not afraid of taking risks nor challenges but are even drawn to those. Despite their need for change, they are generally not as adaptable as it seems. They can’t stand repetition or monotonous routines for too long. Professionally, their traits such as high emotional stability, ability to think under pressure and remain calm during delicate situations can be beneficial when dealing with emergencies or dangerous tasks. Such dynamism, focus on results, and commanding behavior makes them likely to be given authority roles inside corporations.

Despite being headstrong, “D ” “s are very friendly and like being surrounded by people. Their friends are seen as an audience who would watch them and praise their success. After all, one of their biggest fears is to stop receiving attention, being taken off spotlight where they believe to belong, get to be seen as incapable of making achievements, or seen as weak. For that reason, they can end up adopting an arrogant, taunting behavior, showing a more repressive and tyrant side. Other negative aspects they often show are unreliability and rebellion, along with manipulative tendencies. They can be inconsiderate towards others, though, it is usually not intentional. They do it because they are not too sensitive and don’t take possible offenses during the heat of a debate as serious, being able to forget disagreements after not so long.

Pushing themselves hard by always setting big goals, “Dominants” are in a constant run, looking forward to trying new things and be able to pass through multiple experiences. They value freedom and independence, moving towards different fields and searching for various new activities in which they can use up their energy and test their capabilities to its full extent. The harder it seems, the more it draws their attention. Environments that can offer a large range of experiences and tasks is where they stand out. Their assertiveness makes it harder for them to pay attention to details but can prevent both time waste and procrastination caused by fear of judgment. Those are points that can be vital at times for a group, as each personality has its role, and certainly “Dominants” have theirs, as well.

It must be taken into account each of the four main personalities described in the DISC theory tends to be prevailing on each individual; most people would have characteristics from more than one of those. The commercial tests of DISC offer four styles in scale, allowing the existence of different personality types in between, resulting in more than only four variations.

 

By: Regina Burde- “Someone who likes to explore human behavior, be it through the perspective of arts or science.”

Bibliography

 

Description of DISC trait for Influence (I)

I-style is one of the four DISC personality types. They are described primarily as communicative and enthusiastic, with a need for approving environments. Their strength and security are based on their bounds and connections to other people. As their relations grow stronger, and “I” type can wield more influence, benefiting from their support whenever it’s needed. They are considered talkative, unsystematic, outgoing, and friendly. Their eternal optimism and excitement emanate, influencing everyone around them.

People with “I” personality trait will avoid being by themselves, always trying to find time to socialize and activities that allow them to be in touch with other people. Their tendency to get distracted from activities that require concentration and tasks other than socializing can be a problem. Still, when it comes to giving emotional support or entertaining, that is what makes the best of them. By focusing so much on people and information exchange, they can play a significant role as leaders, gaining respect through charisma rather than through repression. Despite not looking forward to gaining authority, they do care for prestige and will do whatever they can to gain a large number of admirers and friends.

As the most communicative personality of the DISC model, what the Influents most fear is loneliness and loss of social approval. Wherever they are, it’s where they would be known by everybody and focus mainly on building relations, understanding other people’s wishes and complaints, always taking into account everybody’s emotions and needs. They have difficulty concentrating for too long, dealing with big amounts of data and tasks that require patience. But despite those flaws, “I”s can benefit from their capacity to align people together, spontaneously inspiring them to work in conjunction to achieve an objective.

Taking into account “I”s noticeable social skills, I-style people are drawn to careers that demand people management, such as positions of leadership and recruitment; their ability to be convincing allow them to play a proper role in marketing and sales; while their charisma, as well, can be useful for jobs related to entertainment, considering they can draw attention to them and know how to mess with people’s emotions positively.

Influents like challenges and like to draw attention, wishing that everybody would share their point of view. They are energetic and fast to take action, not caring much about details. They are sometimes seen as impulsive and disorganized because they tend to focus all their energy on people. During conversations, they are optimistic and adopt a friendly approach, which causes them to be warm, good counselors, but sometimes unreliable because of their avoidance of giving bad news or negative feedback.

Other characteristics of “I”s include great displeasure for being interrupted while speaking and an appreciation for both freedoms of expression and democratic relationships.

It must be taken into account each of the four main personalities described in the DISC theory tends to be prevailing on each individual; most people would have characteristics from more than one of those. The commercial tests of DISC offer four styles in scale, allowing the existence of different personality types in between, resulting in more than only four variations.

By: Regina Burde- “Someone who likes to explore human behavior, be it through the perspective of arts or science.”

Bibliography

 

 

Description of DISC trait for Steadiness (S)

People with strong S-tendency have as their most known traits being kindhearted, thoughtful, and agreeable. Steadiness are one of the most common personality types from the DISC model. As the name suggests, they are fearful of changes because of the challenges they might end up bringing, wishing to keep everything they are already used to and know how to deal with.

S-style people’s need for constancy and stability makes them likely to be more involved with a small number of people and tasks, which they would become attached to as time goes by, seeing themselves as someone fragile, both when facing unexpected situations and for relationships. Also, because they are more likely to feel hurt and get offended when criticized, they try to be cordial to everyone around them, avoiding failure at any coast and carefully conducting their tasks with patience and perfectionism.

As improvising is one of the hardest tasks for “Stables,” they like to “stick to what they know,” and that includes following a strict routine and not minding repetitive activities. The fact they are so affected by changes and by people around them can be very limiting sometimes, making them seen as hesitating and shy. Although, there are also other facts about the way they interact with others that can make them seen that way, such as a tendency to listen more than speak, a preference for one-on-one conversations, being more reserved, introverted agreeable.

The fact they can work with a more strict routine makes S-profiles usually good employees and easy to deal with. They would do whatever they can to avoid getting in trouble or upsetting their colleagues. In a group, they would prioritize collaboration and harmony, being supportive and joyful to please their leaders. If they get to become the leader of a group, though, they would focus on agreements, making sure to maintain organization and stability.

S-style people also tend to be loyal, reliable, passionate about groups they have close ties with, and very considerate to other people’s feelings. As a calm, discreet personality, they’ll be good neighbors, helpful and good friends, being people who like to build trust.

S-profiles despise unrighteousness and unfairness. While talking, they’ll try to make sure every information given by them is correct, and even though they are hesitant to make decisions, they speak directly. Their biggest motivations are to feel helpful and receive sincere, positive appraisal, and feedback.

It must be taken into account each of the four main personalities described in the DISC theory tends to be prevailing on each individual; most people would have characteristics from more than one of those. The commercial tests of DISC offer four styles in scale, allowing the existence of different personality types in between, resulting in more than only four variations.

 

By: Regina Burde- “Someone who likes to explore human behavior, be it through the perspective of arts or science.”

Bibliography

 

 

Description of DISC trait for Conscientiousness (C)

Individuals with strong Conscientiousness tendencies are, in short, mostly known as systematic, reserved, and unemotional. C-profiles are very detail-oriented, basing their feeling of security on knowledge and data. They tend to set high standards as a goal, analyzing carefully the tools they have available and how efficient they are.

As the most logical and tactical personality of the DISC model, C-profiles can be overly critical to themselves and also to who is around them. Their perfectionism would often bring problems, as they might pressure everybody around to fulfill their high requirements. They might have a hard time when in need to make fast decisions, and usually don’t have a good perspective for an overall view about a project or subject. Because they overly focus on details, they would often be seen as nit-picky, even more, when they are under pressure, since their biggest fear is committing mistakes and getting criticized.

Socially, C-styles not just don’t mind being alone as they also seek isolation, which includes avoiding crowded places, parties, and social events. They prefer communicating through written messages rather than by speaking, such as e-mail, SMS, and social media. During conversations, despite open-minded, they adopt a diplomatic approach, avoiding abstract subjects and personal points of view. Professionally, as the most reserved of the four DISC styles, they are comfortable working alone and may be reluctant to let go of or delegate tasks. They like dealing with big amounts of information, logic, and analytical thinking. They are motivated by opportunities to learn, showing skill and efficiency. As leaders, they tend to emphasize the quality of products, tools, services, and rules. Because they are so cautious, they tend to be the best ones when it comes to testing if everything and everyone is working correctly and identifying mistakes.

What C-types have as their primary goals are personal growth, to acquire stability, to fulfill their plans, and exclusive achievements.

It must be taken into account each of the four main personalities described in the DISC theory tends to be prevailing on each individual; most people would have characteristics from more than one of those. The commercial tests of DISC offer four styles in scale, allowing the existence of different personality types in between, resulting in more than only four variations.

 

By: Regina Burde- “Someone who likes to explore human behavior, be it through the perspective of arts or science.”

Bibliography

Low in Openness (Non-curious/Consistent/Cautious)

As the name suggests, in comparison to High in Openness, people Low in Openness would have a somewhat opposite behavior, such as attachment to conventional beliefs and practices, lower creative and abstract thinking capabilities, and resistance to change[1]. In short, they might be perceived by others as close-minded. According to Jordan B. Peterson[2], they focus on tangible and nontheoretical ideas, avoiding new experiences, and leaving creativeness aside.

 

By: Regina Burde- “Someone who likes to explore human behavior, be it through the perspective of arts or science.”

Bibliography

[1] Cherry, K. (2019, August 26). The Big Five Personality Traits. About, Inc. (Dotdash). Retrieved from: https://www.verywellmind.com/the-big-five-personality-dimensions-2795422

[2] Peterson, J. [Jordan B Peterson]. (2017, October 7). 20 Minutes on UnderstandMyself.com [Video file]. Retrieved from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4IdzC6mJzLA

 

Low in Extraversion (Reserved/Solitary)

As the name suggests, in comparison to High in Extraversion, people Low in Extraversion would have a somewhat opposite behavior, such as Introversion, isolation, and higher requirement of energy to interact. Others might perceive them as shy, which is not true since shyness is more connected to neuroticism.

According to Jordan B. Peterson[1], Introversion can be divided into two subcategories, which are Lack of Assertiveness and Lack of Enthusiasm. People with this trait are also classified by Kendra Cherry[2] as less communicative, avoidant of small talks, avoidant of drawing attention, and careful with what to say. They are characterized by Christopher J. Soto[3] as having in general fewer friends, fewer dating partners, being less likely to achieve leadership positions, and been seen as having a higher social status.

 

By: Regina Burde- “Someone who likes to explore human behavior, be it through the perspective of arts or science.”

Bibliography

[1] Peterson, J. [Jordan B Peterson]. (2017, October 7). 20 Minutes on UnderstandMyself.com [Video file]. Retrieved from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4IdzC6mJzLA

[2] Cherry, K. (2019, August 26). The Big Five Personality Traits. About, Inc. (Dotdash). Retrieved from: https://www.verywellmind.com/the-big-five-personality-dimensions-2795422

[3] Soto, C. J. (2018). Big Five Personality Traits. ResearchGate. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/324115204_Big_Five_personality_traits

 

Low in Neuroticism (Calm/Secure/Confident)

As the name suggests, in comparison to High in Neuroticism, people Low in Neuroticism would have a somewhat opposite behavior. As reported by Jordan B Peterson[1], this trait is connected to lower anxiety and lower emotional influence from uncertainty. According to Kendra Cherry[2], they are more likely to be emotionally stable, less affected by stress, more relaxed, happy, and easy-going.

 

By: Regina Burde- “Someone who likes to explore human behavior, be it through the perspective of arts or science.”

Bibliography

[1] Peterson, J. [Jordan B Peterson]. (2017, October 7). 20 Minutes on UnderstandMyself.com [Video file]. Retrieved from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4IdzC6mJzLA

[2] Cherry, K. (2019, August 26). The Big Five Personality Traits. About, Inc. (Dotdash). Retrieved from: https://www.verywellmind.com/the-big-five-personality-dimensions-2795422

 

 

 

Low in Conscientiousness (Unstructured/Easy-going/Careless)

As the name suggests, in comparison to High in Conscientiousness, people Low in Conscientiousness would have a somewhat opposite behavior, such as lack of compromising to systems and deadlines, disorganization, negligence, procrastination, and inefficiency, as reported by Kendra Cherry[1].

Other characteristics connected to people categorized as Low in Conscientiousness were documented by Christopher J. Soto[2], included inaccurate planning, impulsiveness, lack of focus, and weak-willed behavior.

 

By: Regina Burde- “Someone who likes to explore human behavior, be it through the perspective of arts or science.”

Bibliography

[1] Cherry, K. (2019, August 26). The Big Five Personality Traits. About, Inc. (Dotdash). Retrieved from: https://www.verywellmind.com/the-big-five-personality-dimensions-2795422

[2] Soto, C. J. (2018). Big Five Personality Traits. ResearchGate. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/324115204_Big_Five_personality_traits

 

Low in Agreeableness (Egocentric/Challenging/Detached)

As the name suggests, in comparison to High in Agreeableness, people Low in Agreeableness would have a somewhat opposite behavior, such as competitiveness and lack of empathy. In short, they are perceived as disagreeable. According to Jordan B. Peterson[1], they focus on their wishes, adopting a more aggressive and combative behavior. And they can also be separated into two subcategories, which are: lack of compassion and lack of politeness (expressing contempt for authority and social conventions).

People categorized as Disagreeable were also described by Kendra Cherry[2] as more scheming, rude, apathetic, and narcissistic.

 

By: Regina Burde- “Someone who likes to explore human behavior, be it through the perspective of arts or science.”

Bibliography

[1] Peterson, J. [Jordan B Peterson]. (2017, October 7). 20 Minutes on UnderstandMyself.com [Video file]. Retrieved from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4IdzC6mJzLA

[2] Cherry, K. (2019, August 26). The Big Five Personality Traits. About, Inc. (Dotdash). Retrieved from: https://www.verywellmind.com/the-big-five-personality-dimensions-2795422

 

High in Openness (Inquisitive/Inventive/Curious)

According to several authors, those who are classified as high in openness are open to experiences and share an interest in arts, originality, abstract, and philosophical concepts. According to Jordan B Peterson[1], their focus on looks, feelings, and ideas at the same time pushes them towards activities related to artistic performances, such as drama and fiction. Those also classify them as creative, inventive, curious, and intelligent individuals, who live in artistic pursuits. Also pointed by Kendra Cherry[2] as adventurous, they tend to continually try and find new experiences, which can often lead to substance abuse, such as alcoholism, smoking, and drug-taking.

As reported by Christopher J. Soto[3], High Openness to Experience can also indicate a more liberal sociopolitical point of view and even a higher chance to engage in unconventional beliefs, such as mystical practices, superstition, and ufology (Epstein & Meier, 1989). They are often interested in music (Ozer & Benet-Martínez, 2006; Paunonen, 2003), environmental activism (Markowitz, Goldberg, Ashton, & Lee, 2012) and personal growth.

Another characteristic pointed out by David C. Funder[4] about this personality trait is their ability to be seen as engaging and clever, expressing themselves with an elevated mindset and polite vocabulary. They like to show how they are quick-witted and well-articulated.

 

By: Regina Burde- “Someone who likes to explore human behavior, be it through the perspective of arts or science.”

Bibliography

[1] Peterson, J. [Jordan B Peterson]. (2017, October 7). 20 Minutes on UnderstandMyself.com [Video file]. Retrieved from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4IdzC6mJzLA

[2] Cherry, K. (2019, August 26). The Big Five Personality Traits. About, Inc. (Dotdash). Retrieved from: https://www.verywellmind.com/the-big-five-personality-dimensions-2795422

[3] Soto, C. J. (2018). Big Five Personality Traits. ResearchGate. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/324115204_Big_Five_personality_traits

[4]Funder, D. C. (2015, October 1). The Personality Puzzle. W. W. Norton & Company. Seventh edition.

High in Neuroticism (Limbic/Sensitive/Nervous)

People classified as high in Neuroticism, also called emotional instability, tend to be more anxious, vulnerable, and stressed. According to Jordan B Peterson[1], this trait is connected to negativity, propensity to suffer always when facing riskiness. Neuroticism can also be divided into two different categories, which are Withdrawal and Volatility. While withdrawal is related to the inability to act in situations of distress, Volatility is related to irritability.

Neuroticism was reported by Kendra Cherry[2] to be related to sadness, exaggerated worry over unimportant things, tendency to feel upset more often, and have a harder time recovering from moments of distress. Christopher J. Soto[3] described this trait as less likely to experience emotional comfort, being psychologically healthy, undergoing fewer satisfying moments in life.

Those who score high in Neuroticism were pointed by David C. Funder[4] to be more ineffective when under emotional pressure and while trying to find solutions (Bolger & Zuckerman, 1995; Ferguson, 2001), even more during social situations, when there’s a risk of having their reputation affected (Denissen & Penke, 2008). They also tend to be physically sick as higher they score (McCrae & Costa, 1991; D. Watson & Clark, 1984).

 

By: Regina Burde- “Someone who likes to explore human behavior, be it through the perspective of arts or science.”

Bibliography

[1] Peterson, J. [Jordan B Peterson]. (2017, October 7). 20 Minutes on UnderstandMyself.com [Video file]. Retrieved from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4IdzC6mJzLA

[2] Cherry, K. (2019, August 26). The Big Five Personality Traits. About, Inc. (Dotdash). Retrieved from: https://www.verywellmind.com/the-big-five-personality-dimensions-2795422

[3] Soto, C. J. (2018). Big Five Personality Traits. ResearchGate. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/324115204_Big_Five_personality_traits

[4]Funder, D. C. (2015, October 1). The Personality Puzzle. W. W. Norton & Company. Seventh edition.

High in Extraversion (Social/Outgoing/Energetic)

People classified as high in extraversion tend to be more friendly, assertive, and high spirited. They genuinely care about other people and their feelings, which makes them more likable and trustworthy.

According to Jordan B Peterson[1], Extraversion has been divided into two different categories, which are Assertiveness and Enthusiasm, And is related to companionableness. It’s also pointed by Kendra Cherry[2] as talkative, outgoing, more influenced by outside factors, more likely to make friends, more likely to be comfortable drawing attention and to speak before thinking.

It was reported by David C. Funder[3] that extraverts have a more pleasant perception about exterior stimulation (S. B. G. Eysenck & Eysenck, 1967; G. D. Wilson, 1978), such as noises, light and sour food (Zuckerman, 1998). They are also told to be aspiring, results-driven (Hogan, 1983; Tellegen, 1985; Watson & Clark, 1997, p. 769), judgmental (Cokely & Feltz, 2009), spontaneously seductive (Schmitt & Buss, 2001), more likely to invest on one-time experiences (Howell, Pchelin, & Iyer, 2011), which can be related to their tendency to be overweight (Sutin, Ferruci, Zonderman, & Terracciano, 2011). Having social contact kept just on an average basis was proven not to interfere with their humor, which remained positive (Lucas, Le, & Dyrenforth, 2008). They are considered in average good salespeople, although some clients were bothered in case of overly communicative vendors (Grant, 2013).

Other characteristics of extraversion pointed by Robert R. McCrae and Paul T. Costa Jr.[4], which he calls Activity, Excitement, and Seeking, are categorized by him as “temperamental facets.” People high in this trait are also classified on his research as agitated, with a liking for potent vehicles, extravagant clothing, and adventure. Joy, delight, zest, and jocularity are part of the package of traits in the domain of Extraversion.

 

By: Regina Burde- “Someone who likes to explore human behavior, be it through the perspective of arts or science.”

Bibliography

[1] Peterson, J. [Jordan B Peterson]. (2017, October 7). 20 Minutes on UnderstandMyself.com [Video file]. Retrieved from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4IdzC6mJzLA

[2] Cherry, K. (2019, August 26). The Big Five Personality Traits. About, Inc. (Dotdash). Retrieved from: https://www.verywellmind.com/the-big-five-personality-dimensions-2795422

[3]Funder, D. C. (2015, October 1). The Personality Puzzle. W. W. Norton & Company. Seventh edition.

[4]McCrae, R. R., and Jr, P. T. C. (2003). Personality in Adulthood: A Five-Factor Theory Perspective. Guilford Press.

ISTP

According to the MBTI model, the ISTPs are mainly oriented towards introverted thinking (Ti). This orientation reveals a more analytical perspective for problem-solving, based on the understanding of structures and how to use it in their favor.  Secondarily, the extraverted sensing (Se) helps compose this type’s need for independence, concrete decision making according to the situation and adaptable thinking, always in a logical way. These are the main ‘cognitive functions’ that characterize the ISTP type. The model extends to other functions considered inferior or/and unconscious, summing up to 8 cognitive functions.

ISTPs are described by Dario Nardi[1] as vigorous problem-solvers who like to observe and understand how things work. For Nardi, they love having new ideas and sharing them, are moved by exciting experiences, and by emotional impulse, while Kelly, Barbara, and Paul D. Tieger[2] focused more on their unceremonious, detached, and self-oriented aspects. For the Tieger family, ISTP’s Extraverted Intuiting side contributes to their awareness about the environment, and Extraverted Feeling regulates their intensity of communication. It results in a decisive, strict, reflective, and questioning character. Despite their tendency to be less talkative (except for especially interesting conversations), this MBTI type has a better perspective about themselves in social environments than what others tend to have about them since their engagement in conversation oscillates significantly depending on the subject. Moments of stress can cause them either to remain silent or to reveal their most critical and argumentative side during a discussion. Their logical, methodic, and strategic thinking might affect their relations negatively, for they don’t mind taking a decision that upsets others if they judge it’s the best choice. ISTPs can be viewed as snobby, unapproachable, unsympathetic, and good-natured at the same time, and they learn by experimentation and testing of strategies and ideas, Tieger family added.

According to David Keirsey[3], ISTP’s are inclined to arts and crafts, are pleasure-seeking, optimistic, pursue honor, and value generosity. Keirsey emphasizes their impulsiveness and fierce struggle for freedom and independence, considering this type as the most capable of mastering the use of tools between all MBTI types. They are also described as tactical, eager for activities that give them adrenaline and tendency to get bored when not entertained, unless in case of enjoyable activities that require patience. They can be wrongly diagnosed as dyslexic or as having a learning disability because of a simple lack of focus in communication, and as “brain-damaged,” hyperactive, or as having attention deficit disorder because of lack of will to do what they are told to. ISTPs are egalitarian, loyal, and helpful to comrades, but at the same time, they are loners, who’re not always willing to cooperate when feeling pressured by schedules or procedures. For Keirsey, they are also likely to neglect their children’s safety, while more likely to spoil them, although they can be harsh parents sometimes.

Other characteristics of ISTPs reported by Isabel and Peter B. Myers[4] are their interest in science (especially mechanics), being good with manual activities, a talent for organizing, classifying and interpreting data and facts, along with statistics.  As a weak point, they are also described as tending towards shyness and having low interest in socialization.

 

By: Regina Burde- “Someone who likes to explore human behavior, be it through the perspective of arts or science.”

Bibliography

[1] Nardi, D. (2011, August 11). Neuroscience of Personality: Brain Savvy Insights for All Types of People. Radiance House. 1.0 edition.

[2] Tieger P. D., Tieger, B. B., and Tieger K. (2014, April 15). Do What You Are: Discover the Perfect Career for You Through the Secrets of Personality Type. Little, Brown Spar. 5th edition.

[3] Keirsey, D. (1998). Please Understand Me II: Temperament Character Intelligence. Prometheus Nemesis Book Company. 1 edition.

[4] Myers, I. B., and Myers P. B. (1980). Gifts Differing: Understanding Personality Type. Davies-Black Publishing. 1 edition.

ISTJ

According to the MBTI model, the ISTJs are mainly oriented towards introverted sensing (Si). This orientation reveals a more subjective perspective for problem-solving, based on relating and comparing previous experiences to new ones.  Secondarily, the extraverted thinking (Te) composes this type’s analytical and strategic approaches for decision-making, always in a logical way. These are the main ‘cognitive functions’ that characterize the ISTJ type. The model extends to other functions considered inferior or/and unconscious, summing up to 8 cognitive functions.

They are described by Dario Nardi[1] as responsible, valuing honor, righteous and hardworking, while Kelly, Barbara, and Paul D. Tieger[2] focused more on their loyal, cooperative, and forehanded.

According to David Keirsey[3], ISTJ’s are inclined to commerce, executive positions, logistic, and conservatism. Keirsey emphasizes their communicative, phlegmatic, pessimistic, and cooperative skills characteristics. They are also described as people who prefer sharing concrete ideas, like to do or have what brings them a feeling of security, having obedience, and respect for authorities. ISTJs are often seen as a simple person who likes to keep things stable and in order. When acquiring something, they care more about actual quality than status. For Keirsey, this type values ceremonies and events as traditional treasures. As mates, they tend to be loyal and dutiful for a lifetime. As parents, they make sure their rules are followed in every detail and instruct them on daily home chores, reserving not much of their time for playing.

Other characteristics of ISTJs reported by Isabel and Peter B. Myers[4] are their interest in dealing with high amounts of information, practical and systematic thinking, patience, cautiousness, focus on details, determination, tolerance to routine, and tendency to underestimate themselves.

 

By: Regina Burde- “Someone who likes to explore human behavior, be it through the perspective of arts or science.”

Bibliography

[1]Nardi, D. (2011, August 11). Neuroscience of Personality: Brain Savvy Insights for All Types of People. Radiance House. 1.0 edition.

[2]Tieger P. D., Tieger, B. B., and Tieger K. (2014, April 15). Do What You Are: Discover the Perfect Career for You Through the Secrets of Personality Type. Little, Brown Spar. 5th edition.

[3]Keirsey, D. (1998). Please Understand Me II: Temperament Character Intelligence. Prometheus Nemesis Book Company. 1 edition.

[4]Myers, I. B., and Myers P. B. (1980). Gifts Differing: Understanding Personality Type. Davies-Black Publishing. 1 edition.

ISFP

According to the MBTI model, the ISFPs are mainly oriented towards introverted feeling (Fi). This orientation reveals a high attachment to personal values, the ability to understand humanities and concepts, guided by a sense of duty and meaning, but with no wish for praise and focusing on harmony more than imposing or expressing their thoughts. Secondarily, the extraverted sensing (Se) helps compose this type’s need for independence, concrete decision making according to the situation and adaptable thinking, always in a logical way. These are the main ‘cognitive functions’ that characterize the ISFP type. The model extends to other functions considered inferior or/and unconscious, summing up to 8 cognitive functions.

They are described by Dario Nardi[1] as good at finding creative solutions, making loyal friends, recognizing opportunities, and exploiting them. For Nardi, ISFPs are genuine, somewhat surprising on their decisions, and very focused when necessary.

Some characteristics of ISFPs pointed by Kelly, Barbara, and Paul D. Tieger[2] are: being friendly, concise, realistic, helpful, encouraging, and cooperative. For the Tieger family, ISFPs like to test and discover new ideas, sticking to those they find meaningful. They tend to choose less populated environments, be undemanding, and dependent. But under stress can be unreliable, strict, and skeptical.

According to David Keirsey[3], ISFP’s are inclined to arts and crafts, tending to become great teachers, nurses, gardeners, designers, or artists. They also tend to enjoy being in contact with kids, nature, and animals. Keirsey considers ISFPs the kindest of all types, also emphasizing their wish for freedom, adventure, impact, virtuosity, and sensory pleasure. They are also described as good with their hands, caring about technique, good-humored, very impulsive, and empathetic.  ISFPs prefer to express themselves and test tactics by action, are indifferent to their suffering a lot of the time, and tend to be quiet. With their children and romantic companions, they are friendly and playful.

Other characteristics of ISFPs reported by Isabel and Peter B. Myers[4] is their malleability, passionate nature, liking for medical procedures, crafting skills, and the highest modesty between all types.

 

By: Regina Burde- “Someone who likes to explore human behavior, be it through the perspective of arts or science.”

Bibliography

[1]Nardi, D. (2011, August 11). Neuroscience of Personality: Brain Savvy Insights for All Types of People. Radiance House. 1.0 edition.

[2]Tieger P. D., Tieger, B. B., and Tieger K. (2014, April 15). Do What You Are: Discover the Perfect Career for You Through the Secrets of Personality Type. Little, Brown Spar. 5th edition.

[3]Keirsey, D. (1998). Please Understand Me II: Temperament Character Intelligence. Prometheus Nemesis Book Company. 1 edition.

[4]Myers, I. B., and Myers P. B. (1980). Gifts Differing: Understanding Personality Type. Davies-Black Publishing. 1 edition.

ISFJ

According to the MBTI model, the ISFJs are mainly oriented towards introverted sensing (Si). This orientation reveals a more subjective perspective for problem-solving, based on relating and comparing previous experiences to new ones.  Secondarily, the extraverted feeling (Fe) composes this type’s interpersonal skills, tending to concentrate on others and trying to understand them, treating harmony between individuals as a priority. These are the main ‘cognitive functions’ that characterize the ISFJ type. The model extends to other functions considered inferior or/and unconscious, summing up to 8 cognitive functions.

They are described by Dario Nardi[1] as having in general proper discernment, planning and organizing abilities, being supportive, fond of traditional values, and concerned about their future. They are also reported to be attentive, agreeable, and generous, valuing harmony.

Some characteristics of ISFJs pointed by Kelly, Barbara, and Paul D. Tieger[2] are an organization, observation of validity of facts, and cooperation. Often seem self-centered, inflexible, and accommodated.

According to David Keirsey[3], ISFJs are inclined to medicine, conservation, secretariat and management, commerce, and logistics. Keirsey emphasizes their focus on conserving cultural and moral values, protecting whoever and whatever they hold dear, and ensure that laws and hierarchies are respected. They are also described as caring, friendly, shy, realistic, stoical, pessimistic, and hardworking, being considered the least hedonic type. As parents, ISFJs tend to be overly protective and strict.

Other characteristics of ISFJs reported by Isabel and Peter B. Myers[4] is their loyalty, warmth, concern with the well-being of others, perfectionism, and the ability to become great family doctors or nurses.

 

By: Regina Burde- “Someone who likes to explore human behavior, be it through the perspective of arts or science.”

Bibliography

[1]Nardi, D. (2011, August 11). Neuroscience of Personality: Brain Savvy Insights for All Types of People. Radiance House. 1.0 edition.

[2]Tieger P. D., Tieger, B. B., and Tieger K. (2014, April 15). Do What You Are: Discover the Perfect Career for You Through the Secrets of Personality Type. Little, Brown Spar. 5th edition.

[3]Keirsey, D. (1998). Please Understand Me II: Temperament Character Intelligence. Prometheus Nemesis Book Company. 1 edition.

[4]Myers, I. B., and Myers P. B. (1980). Gifts Differing: Understanding Personality Type. Davies-Black Publishing. 1 edition.

INTP

According to the MBTI model, INTPs are mainly oriented towards introverted thinking (Ti). This orientation reveals a more analytical perspective for problem-solving, based on the understanding of structures and how to use it in their favor.  Secondarily, the extraverted intuiting (Ne) helps compose this type’s imaginative tendency and focus on possibilities. These are the main ‘cognitive functions’ that characterize the INTP type. The model extends to other functions considered inferior or/and unconscious, summing up to 8 cognitive functions.

They are described by Dario Nardi[1] as more connected with their imaginative abstract world than to reality, trying to gain knowledge in some specific area of interest and thinking of possibilities, focusing on the big picture.

Kelly, Barbara, and Paul D. Tieger[2]pointed at INTPs’ aspects, such as their urge to create theories that can relate to their daily lives and testing them on new tasks and experiences. This type tends to be dubious concerning even their most basic activities, enjoy freedom and adventure, and seek continuously for new challenges. They are also known as problem solvers and people who like studying how things work meticulously. Despite they tend to not so openly share their thoughts if, under stress, they would be insistently trying to make others understand what they are concerned about.

According to David Keirsey[3], INTP’s are inclined to systems design, structures, science, technology, logistics, and tactics. For Kiersey, this type is focused on organizing, establishing goals, analyzing information, and acquiring knowledge. They like to think logically and use reason to question every information that gets to them. INTP’s prefer working in quiet environments, where they can be left alone and concentrate easier. They are also often seen as shy and hard to read. In romantic relationships and family environments, this personality type is known as loyal and collaborative. As parents, INTPs are dedicated and pay attention to every aspect of their kids’ personalities, wishes, and limitations, allowing them to have the freedom to some extent, as long as in reasonable proportions, letting them learn from experience as much as they can.

Other characteristics of INTPs reported by Isabel and Peter B. Myers[4] are their interest in more fundamental ideas and concepts and facts more than in people or situations. They tend to focus on analyzing problems and everything around them, with natural curiosity and while making long term plans. INTPs are also known to be impersonal, reserved, avoidant, and highly critical.

 

By: Regina Burde- “Someone who likes to explore human behavior, be it through the perspective of arts or science.”

Bibliography

[1]Nardi, D. (2011, August 11). Neuroscience of Personality: Brain Savvy Insights for All Types of People. Radiance House. 1.0 edition.

[2]Tieger P. D., Tieger, B. B., and Tieger K. (2014, April 15). Do What You Are: Discover the Perfect Career for You Through the Secrets of Personality Type. Little, Brown Spar. 5th edition.

[3]Keirsey, D. (1998). Please Understand Me II: Temperament Character Intelligence. Prometheus Nemesis Book Company. 1 edition.

[4]Myers, I. B., and Myers P. B. (1980). Gifts Differing: Understanding Personality Type. Davies-Black Publishing. 1 edition.

INTJ

According to the MBTI model, the INTJs are mainly oriented towards introverted intuiting (Ni). This orientation reveals a more inner perspective for problem-solving based on the creation of new possibilities, individualistic tact, and inspiration. Secondarily, the extraverted thinking (Te) composes this type’s analytical and strategic approaches for decision-making, always in a logical way. These are the main ‘cognitive functions’ that characterize the INTJ type. The model extends to other functions considered inferior or/and unconscious, summing up to 8 cognitive functions.

They are described by Dario Nardi[1] as focused on lifelong tasks and learning processes. They like developing systems and interacting, preserve independence, and are good at understanding motives.

Some characteristics pointed by Kelly, Barbara, and Paul D. Tieger[2]are that INTJs are highly logical and analytical, like keeping ideas and theories they find valid and useful but find it hard to explain their insights. INTJs are also classified as speculative and like to find reasoning by connecting abstractions and finding patterns. For the Tieger family, INTJs might look dogmatic, stubborn, impatient, and sometimes critical or even perfectionist.

According to David Keirsey[3], INTJ’s are inclined to science, technology, systems, strategy, and general knowledge. They tend to be calm, reasonable, abstract, reserved, and hard to read, having a schedule minded nature. Keirsey emphasizes their focus on achievements, the talent for planning long term strategies, and motivation through challenges. They are also described as demanding, hard to please, cold, avoidant of physical contact with a few exceptions, and loners, being the most independent between all types. Despite their high need for privacy, INTJs can also be sensitive and extremely passionate as romantic partners and being loyal. As parents, they are dedicated and loving, letting them make their choices as long as within safe conditions.

Peter B. Myers[4] considered INTJs not very capable of assimilating routine nor theoretical researches, but highly innovative, technical, and practical, tending not to show interest in other peoples’ ideas and being overly critical towards them.

 

By: Regina Burde- “Someone who likes to explore human behavior, be it through the perspective of arts or science.”

Bibliography

[1]Nardi, D. (2011, August 11). Neuroscience of Personality: Brain Savvy Insights for All Types of People. Radiance House. 1.0 edition.

[2]Tieger P. D., Tieger, B. B. and Tieger K. (2014, April 15). Do What You Are: Discover the Perfect Career for You Through the Secrets of Personality Type. Little, Brown Spar. 5th edition.

[3]Keirsey, D. (1998). Please Understand Me II: Temperament Character Intelligence. Prometheus Nemesis Book Company. 1 edition.

[4]Myers, I. B. and Myers P. B. (1980). Gifts Differing: Understanding Personality Type. Davies-Black Publishing. 1 edition.

INFP

According to the MBTI model, the INFPs are mainly oriented towards introverted feeling (Fi). This orientation reveals a high attachment to personal values, the ability to understand humanities and concepts, guided by a sense of duty and meaning, but with no wish for praise and focusing on harmony more than imposing or expressing their thoughts. Secondarily, the extraverted intuiting (Ne) helps compose this type’s imaginative tendency and focus on possibilities. These are the main ‘cognitive functions’ that characterize the INFP type. The model extends to other functions considered inferior or/and unconscious, summing up to 8 cognitive functions.

They are described by Dario Nardi[1] as an understanding of subjective or implicit ideas, getting carried by the mood of the moment while looking for discoveries and looking at moral subjects from different perspectives. For Nardi, it might be a bit hard for them to follow imposed rules or values a lot of the time.

Some characteristics pointed by Kelly, Barbara, and Paul D. Tieger[2] are containment, isolation, impatience, and assertiveness. When under pressure, they tend to show a more impulsive and overly judgmental side, sometimes being seen as dependable on some people or slow on the upkeep, partly because of their lack of interest and skill in socialization. For the Tieger family, INFPs like to have the autonomy, and enjoy dealing with complex situations, they want to find new solutions and are kind to others, despite their low focus on interpersonal relations. Like to learn by observing how solutions would work, before actually trying them. They like to take notes and listen to advise from specialists.

According to David Keirsey[3], INFP’s are inclined to teaching, counseling, social work, and research, always in subjects related to humanities, with a liking for academic tasks. Their tendency to fantasize about abstract ideas makes them apt to interpret and create artistic concepts. Keirsey emphasizes their focus on bounds, their caring for human relations, and wishes to bring happiness for those to who they most wish well. They are also described as not being self-confident and having pre-formed opinions even about subjects they don’t know well about. Tend to be patient on dealing with challenges but so much with routine.

Other characteristics of INFPs reported by Isabel and Peter B. Myers[4] is their somewhat shy enthusiasm, natural kindness, acceptance for new ideas and situations, and a need for meaning in what they do, to keep on motivated.

 

By: Regina Burde- “Someone who likes to explore human behavior, be it through the perspective of arts or science.”

Bibliography

[1] Nardi, D. (2011, August 11). Neuroscience of Personality: Brain Savvy Insights for All Types of People. Radiance House. 1.0 edition.

[2] Tieger P. D., Tieger, B. B., and Tieger K. (2014, April 15). Do What You Are: Discover the Perfect Career for You Through the Secrets of Personality Type. Little, Brown Spar. 5th edition.

[3] Keirsey, D. (1998). Please Understand Me II: Temperament Character Intelligence. Prometheus Nemesis Book Company. 1 edition.

[4] Myers, I. B., and Myers P. B. (1980). Gifts Differing: Understanding Personality Type. Davies-Black Publishing. 1 edition.

 

 

 

 

INFJ

According to the MBTI model, the INFJs are mainly oriented towards introverted feeling (Ni). This orientation reveals a more inner perspective for problem-solving based on the creation of new possibilities, individualistic tact, and inspiration. Secondarily, the extraverted feeling (Fe) helps compose this type’s interpersonal skills, tending to concentrate on others and try to understand them, treating harmony between individuals as a priority. These are the main ‘cognitive functions’ that characterize the INFJ type. The model extends to other functions considered inferior or/and unconscious, summing up to 8 cognitive functions.

INFJs are described by Dario Nardi[1] as focused on personal development, having a well-established point of view, and being grateful. They are highly creative, predictive, and analytical, choosing a more practical approach to problem-solving. They seek meaning in their tasks and plans, and their perfectionism can cause them to feel often frustrated.

Other characteristics from INFJs pointed by Kelly, Barbara, and Paul D. Tieger are that they are grateful and appreciative of others, inclusive, kind, cooperative, and value-oriented. They like finding new ways to think of and explain the same ideas over and over to verify their accuracy. For the Tieger family, INFJs like to be perceived as encouraging and creating strong bonds. Their agreeable nature can cause them to be taken advantage of, and being seen as too soft on people, which could make them unapt to take harsh decisions when needed.

According to David Keirsey[2], INFJ’s are providers of counseling, assistance, welfare, and guidance to others. They tend to express themselves in a very abstract way and are specialists in the interpretation of human feelings and thoughts. Keirsey also emphasizes INFJs’ sensibility, altruism, intuition, and their reserved, hardworking natures, as well. They are reported to value morality, wisdom, and recognition, finding motivation in problem-solving and academic tasks. For Keirsey, they are also likely to being very caring towards their mates and children, and strict parents when needed.

Other characteristics of INFJs reported by Isabel and Peter B. Myers[3] are their interest in including others and other’s feelings, valuing harmony and cooperation above all. Although, for Myers, their assisting actions most often tend to affect and help a limited number of people.

 

By: Regina Burde- “Someone who likes to explore human behavior, be it through the perspective of arts or science.”

Bibliography

[1] Nardi, D. (2011, August 11). Neuroscience of Personality: Brain Savvy Insights for All Types of People. Radiance House. 1.0 edition.

[2] Keirsey, D. (1998). Please Understand Me II: Temperament Character Intelligence. Prometheus Nemesis Book Company. 1 edition.

[3] Myers, I. B., and Myers P. B. (1980). Gifts Differing: Understanding Personality Type. Davies-Black Publishing. 1 edition.

 

 

 

ESTP

According to the MBTI model, the ESTPs are mainly oriented towards extraverted sensing (Se). This orientation reveals a higher need for independence, concrete decision making according to the situation, and adaptable thinking, always in a logical way.  Secondarily, the introverted thinking (Ti) helps compose this type’s analytical perspective for problem-solving, based on the understanding of structures and how to use it in their favor. These are the main ‘cognitive functions’ that characterize the ESTP type. The model extends to other functions considered inferior or/and unconscious, summing up to 8 cognitive functions.

They are described by Dario Nardi[1] as caring and inspiring, who seek recognition, respect, and measurement of outcomes and achievements. They like to give advice, tend to keep open for new possibilities, are good at negotiating, and are decisive when needed.

ESTPs are pointed by Kelly, Barbara, and Paul D. Tieger[2] as cheerful, gentle, realistic, analytical, critical to some extent, and active. For the Tieger family, ESTPs like take on immediate and challenging tasks, seeing these as a chance to learn. They focus on the present and are mostly self-centered. When pressured, ESTPs might look abrupt and forceful.

According to David Keirsey[3], ESTP’s are inclined to advertising, publicizing, troubleshooting, negotiating, entrepreneurship, promoting, arbitrating, lawyering, industry, and show-business. They are strategical, interested in arts and crafts, technical, good with their hands, focus on the present, have high trust in their grasp for finding solutions, and are naturally prone to become leaders. Keirsey emphasizes their focus on people, using manipulation, influential power, and developing strategies to captivate and engage their public.  They are also described as constantly seeking for rewards on every aspect of their lives and would decide their actions always concerning compensations. ESTPs tend to be clever, have a liking for objects and activities of high financial or popularity status. Caring about traditional and moral values, they are also seen as calm and cautious, leaving their focus mainly on something other than the family environment. As parents, this type is active and genuine, liking to give gifts and objects of high value and encouraging them to engage in competitive and radical physical activities.

Other characteristics of ESTPs reported by Isabel and Peter B. Myers[4] is their rationality, deep understanding of the human mind and behavior, knowledge of basic concepts, practicality, accuracy, and immediatism.

 

By: Regina Burde- “Someone who likes to explore human behavior, be it through the perspective of arts or science.”

Bibliography:

[1] Nardi, D. (2011, August 11). Neuroscience of Personality: Brain Savvy Insights for All Types of People. Radiance House. 1.0 edition.

[2] Tieger P. D., Tieger, B. B., and Tieger K. (2014, April 15). Do What You Are: Discover the Perfect Career for You Through the Secrets of Personality Type. Little, Brown Spar. 5th edition.

[3] Keirsey, D. (1998). Please Understand Me II: Temperament Character Intelligence. Prometheus Nemesis Book Company. 1 edition.

[4] Myers, I. B., and Myers P. B. (1980). Gifts Differing: Understanding Personality Type. Davies-Black Publishing. 1 edition.

 

 

 

 

ESTJ

According to the MBTI model, the ESTJs are mainly oriented towards extraverted thinking (Te). This orientation reveals more analytical and strategic approaches for decision-making, always in a logical way.  Secondarily, the introverted sensing (Si) composes this type’s subjective perspective for problem-solving, based on relating and comparing previous experiences to new ones. These are the main ‘cognitive functions’ that characterize the ESTJ type. The model extends to other functions considered inferior or/and unconscious, summing up to 8 cognitive functions.

ESTJs are described by Dario Nardi[1] as organizers, self-teaching, hardworking, diligent, methodic, traditional, perfectionist, and concerned about the economy. They don’t think fun is more important than work and like to go through specific philosophical rules they decide to keep.

Some characteristics pointed by Kelly, Barbara, and Paul D. Tieger[2] are difficulty in giving direct reports, in creating bounds and maintaining them, and making strategical decisions. For the Tieger family, ESTJs like making decisive, organized, and realistic remarks, testing the validity of information through questioning, preferring hands-on, practical approach, use of logic, and methods to prove theories efficiency and learn. ESTJs are also straight forward and active, becoming possibly demanding and even arrogant when under pressure.

According to David Keirsey[3], ESTJ’s are inclined to ruling, politics, police work, military, and business above all. They like supervising, following rules, and making sure everyone does that. Keirsey emphasizes their focus on maintaining moral and traditional values, enforcing respect for authorities, and efficiency in the fulfillment of tasks as well.

They are also described as concrete, cooperative, pessimistic, stoical, nostalgic towards memories, though minded, expressive, very outgoing and friendly, dependent on close relationships, good at organizing schedules, and strict. ESTJs tend to distribute roles to the members of their family and give each one different tasks, are faithful and dutiful in a family environment, are worried about having their kids act accordingly to what they were taught as they grow and like observing them.

Other characteristics of ESTJs’ reported by Isabel and Peter B. Myers[4] is their physical sensitivity, longing for tangible emotions, realistic oriented perspective, and concern about the present. They also deal well with routine and have good mechanical skills. Myers reports this type as using practical experiences to solve future problems.

 

By: Regina Burde- “Someone who likes to explore human behavior, be it through the perspective of arts or science.”

Bibliography

[1] Nardi, D. (2011, August 11). Neuroscience of Personality: Brain Savvy Insights for All Types of People. Radiance House. 1.0 edition.

[2] Tieger P. D., Tieger, B. B. and Tieger K. (2014, April 15). Do What You Are: Discover the Perfect Career for You Through the Secrets of Personality Type. Little, Brown Spar. 5th edition.

[3] Keirsey, D. (1998). Please Understand Me II: Temperament Character Intelligence. Prometheus Nemesis Book Company. 1 edition.

[4] Myers, I. B. and Myers P. B. (1980). Gifts Differing: Understanding Personality Type. Davies-Black Publishing. 1 edition.

 

 

 

 

ESFP

According to the MBTI model, the ESFPs are mainly oriented towards extraverted sensing (Se). This orientation reveals a higher need for independence, concrete decision making according to the situation, and adaptable thinking, always in a logical way.  Secondarily, the introverted feeling (Fi) helps compose this type’s attachment to personal values, ability to understand humanities and concepts, guided by a sense of duty and meaning, but with no wish for praise and focusing on harmony more than imposing or expressing their thoughts. These are the main ‘cognitive functions’ that characterize the ESFP type. The model extends to other functions considered inferior or/and unconscious, summing up to 8 cognitive functions.

As pointed by Dario Nardi,[1] ESFPs are focused on people, caring for them, and interested in learning about them, despite not having a very accurate sensitivity to understand their reasons, thoughts, or feelings. For Nardi, ESFPs like challenges, learning, and inspiring other people to make their discoveries and are good at bringing up helpful information at the right time.

They are described by Kelly, Barbara, and Paul D. Tieger[2] as empathetic, focused on the present, energetic, practical, overdependent, responsive, impatient, straightforward, and tolerant. They like pretending feelings or thoughts to observe the outcome, focus on the physical world and their five senses, and tend to engage others in subjects of their interest to have them give their opinions. For the Tieger family, ESFPs tend to be impulsive, and when feeling pressured might become unreliable, rigid, and unkind.

According to David Keirsey[3], ESFP’s are inclined to arts and crafts, performing arts, being on stage, social activities, selling, teaching, and social work. They also get along with kids more easily, being able to identify with them for feeling connected to playful childhood environments. Keirsey emphasizes ESFP’s focus on people, having fun, on the present, being cheerful, and transmitting a never-ending party-like mood.  They are also described as being good at telling jokes and entertaining, being always well informed about fun activities, and trying to bring everyone’s moods up. Tend to be uninhibited and impulsive with the lowest anxiety rate of all types, for having their focus on being as optimistic as they can for how long as they can. ESFPs tend to be not the ones with the highest grades in school or with compromising schedules. In the family environment, they might be unpredictable and unreliable, unable to plan expenses accurately or being aware of other people’s necessities.

Other characteristics of ESFPs reported by Isabel and Peter B. Myers[4] is their tendency to let their feelings guide them, having high social and artistic skills.

 

By: Regina Burde- “Someone who likes to explore human behavior, be it through the perspective of arts or science.”

Bibliography

[1] Nardi, D. (2011, August 11). Neuroscience of Personality: Brain Savvy Insights for All Types of People. Radiance House. 1.0 edition.

[2]Tieger P. D., Tieger, B. B., and Tieger K. (2014, April 15). Do What You Are: Discover the Perfect Career for You Through the Secrets of Personality Type. Little, Brown Spar. 5th edition.

[3] Keirsey, D. (1998). Please Understand Me II: Temperament Character Intelligence. Prometheus Nemesis Book Company. 1 edition.

[4] Myers, I. B., and Myers P. B. (1980). Gifts Differing: Understanding Personality Type. Davies-Black Publishing. 1 edition.

 

 

 

ENTP

According to the MBTI model, the ENTPs are mainly oriented towards extraverted intuiting (Ne). This orientation reveals a more imaginative tendency and focuses on possibilities.  Secondarily, the introverted thinking (Ti) helps compose this type’s analytical perspective for problem-solving, based on the understanding of structures and how to use it in their favor. These are the main ‘cognitive functions’ that characterize the ENTP type. The model extends to other functions considered inferior or/and unconscious, summing up to 8 cognitive functions.

ENTPs are described by Dario Nardi[1] as diplomatic, strategical, welcoming, creative, and good at creating systems. They like to keep on learning on an endless cycle about subjects of their interest.

Some of ENTPs’ characteristics pointed by Kelly, Barbara, and Paul D. Tieger[2] are: impulsiveness, learning by the network, thinking ahead about the future, and observing the concept of action and reaction. For the Tieger family, ENTPs are motivated by environments where they have creative freedom, chances to share ideas, and brainstorming. When feeling under pressure, ENTPs can become more restless, noisy, impulsive, and even rude.

According to David Keirsey[3], ENTP’s are inclined to science, technology, systems, teaching, leading, engineering, and human relations. They are well humored, curious, calm, reasonable, knowledge-seeking, insightful, and friendly. Keirsey emphasizes their inventiveness, with a talent for physics and mechanics, curiosity, and analytical nature. ENTPs are also described as good improvisers, productive, entrepreneurial, avid problem-solvers, having high trust in their abilities, having a tendency to stick to their methods in a way that they don’t feel like reanalyze to rethink what is the most efficient. In family environments, ENTPs tend to be vivid, well humored, and look forward to competing on figuring who is better with words. As parents, they tend to be affectionate, but sometimes negligent, when having their mind busy with problems. They tend to be way too busy to spend time with their kids and end up giving someone else this task.

Other characteristics of ENTPs reported by Isabel and Peter B. Myers[4] is their independent, impersonal, and promotive side.

 

By: Regina Burde- “Someone who likes to explore human behavior, be it through the perspective of arts or science.”

Bibliography

[1] Nardi, D. (2011, August 11). Neuroscience of Personality: Brain Savvy Insights for All Types of People. Radiance House. 1.0 edition.

[2] Tieger P. D., Tieger, B. B., and Tieger K. (2014, April 15). Do What You Are: Discover the Perfect Career for You Through the Secrets of Personality Type. Little, Brown Spar. 5th edition.

[3] Keirsey, D. (1998). Please Understand Me II: Temperament Character Intelligence. Prometheus Nemesis Book Company. 1 edition.

[4] Myers, I. B., and Myers P. B. (1980). Gifts Differing: Understanding Personality Type. Davies-Black Publishing. 1 edition.

 

 

 

 

ENTJ

According to the MBTI model, the ENTJs are mainly oriented towards extraverted thinking (Te). This orientation reveals more analytical and strategic approaches for decision-making, always in a logical way. Secondarily, the introverted intuiting (Ni) helps compose this type’s inner perspective for problem-solving, based on the creation of new possibilities, individualistic tact, and inspiration. These are the main ‘cognitive functions’ that characterize the ENTJ type. The model extends to other functions considered inferior or/and unconscious, summing up to 8 cognitive functions.

ENTJs are described by Dario Nardi[1] as natural leaders who are in a constant search of solutions for all problems; additionally, they can be identified as hard workers who are concerned about the progress and development of people’s capabilities.

Some characteristics of ENTJs pointed by Kelly, Barbara, and Paul D. Tieger[2] are: their strong will to verbalize their ideas and theories, to elaborate analysis and methods, and to deal with challenging tasks or environments.  For the Tieger family, ENTJs are energetic, impatient, having a broad view and liking for detailed and extensive courses of action. Under stress, ENTJs can become demanding and overly critical.

According to David Keirsey[3], ENTJ’s are inclined to science, innovation, and systems. They have a strong wish to rule, from the coordination of a team to distribution and follow up of their tasks. ENTJs focus on what needs to get done and on every aspect of how to get it done by planning every step accurately, with a good grasp and sensitivity. They are very capable of finding a source of inefficiency and are fast working on a solution.

Other characteristics of ENTJs reported by Isabel and Peter B. Myers[4] are: seeing the big picture, being emotional, innovative, and concerned about long term results. ENTJs focus on possibilities and are motivated by challenge.

 

By: Regina Burde- “Someone who likes to explore human behavior, be it through the perspective of arts or science.”

Bibliography

[1] Nardi, D. (2011, August 11). Neuroscience of Personality: Brain Savvy Insights for All Types of People. Radiance House. 1.0 edition.

[2] Tieger P. D., Tieger, B. B. and Tieger K. (2014, April 15). Do What You Are: Discover the Perfect Career for You Through the Secrets of Personality Type. Little, Brown Spar. 5th edition.

[3] Keirsey, D. (1998). Please Understand Me II: Temperament Character Intelligence. Prometheus Nemesis Book Company. 1 edition.

[4] Myers, I. B. and Myers P. B. (1980). Gifts Differing: Understanding Personality Type. Davies-Black Publishing. 1 edition.

 

 

 

 

ENFP

According to the MBTI model, the ENFPs are mainly oriented towards extraverted intuiting (Ne). This orientation reveals a more imaginative tendency and focus on possibilities.  Secondarily, the introverted feeling (Fi) helps compose this type’s attachment to personal values, ability to understand humanities and concepts, guided by a sense of duty and meaning, but with no wish for praise and focusing on harmony more than imposing or expressing their thoughts. These are the main ‘cognitive functions’ that characterize the ENFP type. The model extends to other functions considered inferior or/and unconscious, summing up to 8 cognitive functions.

They are described by Dario Nardi[1] as authentic, having a good follow-through of their ideas, and understanding implicit facts about other people’s ideas. They long for harmony and seek new information that would bring them more purpose and genuine satisfaction.

Some characteristics of ENFPs pointed by Kelly, Barbara, and Paul D. Tieger[2] are: valuing freedom, enjoying to explore new ideas and concepts to learn and clarify their vision about the world; being focused on people, open about their points of view and feelings; having a broad and expansive viewpoint, filled with different options and like to talk about them.  For the Tieger family, ENFPs under pressure can become more impulsive, distracted, and obsessive about a few specific subjects.

According to David Keirsey[3], ENFP’s are inclined to teaching, ministry, communicative arts, journalism, oration, novels, screenwriting, and playwrights. They get inspired by brainstorming, developing new ideas, and coming across challenging experiences. Keirsey emphasizes their awareness, tendency to get bored, and being imaginative. ENFPs are also described as people who can lose their cool with leadership sometimes and can have an oscillating desire of collecting objects of high value while at the same time may lack simple, necessaire things and leave them aside.  In family environments, ENFPs avoid doing the chores and administrating finances. They tend to be warm towards their romantic partner but might have a hard time preserving the relationship without loss of interest. As parents, ENFPs tend to be dedicated but oscillating from very soft and friendly treatment to harsh, demanding one, depending on their humor and patience at the moment.

Other characteristics of ENFPs reported by Isabel and Peter B. Myers[4] are their supportive and counseling nature, highly sociability, and influencing.

 

By: Regina Burde- “Someone who likes to explore human behavior, be it through the perspective of arts or science.”

Bibliography

[1] Nardi, D. (2011, August 11). Neuroscience of Personality: Brain Savvy Insights for All Types of People. Radiance House. 1.0 edition.

[2] Tieger P. D., Tieger, B. B. and Tieger K. (2014, April 15). Do What You Are: Discover the Perfect Career for You Through the Secrets of Personality Type. Little, Brown Spar. 5th edition.

[3] Keirsey, D. (1998). Please Understand Me II: Temperament Character Intelligence. Prometheus Nemesis Book Company. 1 edition.

[4] Myers, I. B. and Myers P. B. (1980). Gifts Differing: Understanding Personality Type. Davies-Black Publishing. 1 edition.

 

 

 

 

ENFJ

According to the MBTI model, the ENFJs are mainly oriented towards extraverted feeling (Fe). This orientation reveals higher interpersonal skills, tending to concentrate on others, and try to understand them, treating harmony between individuals as a priority. Secondarily, the introverted intuiting (Ni) helps compose this type’s inner perspective for problem-solving, based on the creation of new possibilities, individualistic tact, and inspiration. These are the main ‘cognitive functions’ that characterize the ENFJ type. The model extends to other functions considered inferior or/and unconscious, summing up to 8 cognitive functions.

They are described by Dario Nardi[1] as intuitive, insightful, and attached to the past, valuing the opportunity of development and connections. For Nardi, they like to exchange ideas and plans, having a talent to identify other people’s skills.

Barbara and Paul D. Tieger[2] pointed out as well as aspects such as visionary, adventurous, and cooperative sides of ENFJs.  For the Tieger family, ENFJ’s like to access new information through a network, establishing connections and taking lessons from their acquaintances’ experiences. This type is often seen as inflexible, dependent on others, stubborn, or slow on the uptake. When under pressure, they might be impatient or extra careful, getting to be overly critical of themselves in extreme cases.

According to David Keirsey[3], ENFJ’s are inclined to professions that require the organization of schedules, coordination of groups, and good communication. They are highly influential, cooperative, caring, and charismatic. Keirsey emphasizes their competence in teaching and inspiring those around them to cooperate as well. Keirsey also describes them as morally strict, organized, well humored, warm, benevolent, interested in abstract ideas, and in acquiring knowledge. For Keirsey, as parents, the ENFJs are likely to be very dedicated and friendly, sometimes overly soft; but exigent in romantic relationships, being more likely to get along INTPs.

Other characteristics of ENFJs reported by Isabel and Peter B. Myers[4] are their interest in new ideas, books, and general knowledge. They can engage in a wide range of activities, being good as expressing themselves, while demonstrating affection towards other people.

 

By: Regina Burde- “Someone who likes to explore human behavior, be it through the perspective of arts or science.”

Bibliography

[1] Nardi, D. (2011, August 11). Neuroscience of Personality: Brain Savvy Insights for All Types of People. Radiance House. 1.0 edition.

[2]Tieger P. D., Tieger, B. B. and Tieger K. (2014, April 15). Do What You Are: Discover the Perfect Career for You Through the Secrets of Personality Type. Little, Brown Spar. 5th edition.

[3] Keirsey, D. (1998). Please Understand Me II: Temperament Character Intelligence. Prometheus Nemesis Book Company. 1 edition.

[4] Myers, I. B. and Myers P. B. (1980). Gifts Differing: Understanding Personality Type. Davies-Black Publishing. 1 edition.

 

 

 

How to work properly with an EIE (ENFj) partner?

EIE might paint you beautifully all the difficulties arising from the task; in such cases, break all the work into small successive stages, set the time for the inspection, and strictly demand the most thorough reports at each “check” point. This strategy will mobilize EIEs and make their work more organized because they are responsible persons.

https://www.livelib.ru/book/1000331706/about-gumanitarnaya-sotsionika-viktor-gulenko

 

(Gulenko V.V.,2009)

What are some potential problems in a relationship between Enneagram Types 7 and 9?

According to Russell Rowe, Nines can see Sevens as too unpredictable, inconsistent, self-serving, with a fast-pace and quick thinking. Also, they are impatient, preoccupied with their plans, and unconcerned about their partner’s needs. On the other hand, Sevens can see Nines as too indecisive, distractible, passive-aggressive, very slow-paced, lacking in initiative, lost in inessential activities, unclear about priorities, obstinate, resistant and desirous of comfort.

(Russel Rowe, 2003-2015.)

 

How do you identify an Enneagram Type 7 person?

Sevens can neglect, deny, or gloss over real issues. Therefore, they don’t like dealing with conflict, discomfort, pain, negativity, or unsettled conditions. When you find an Enneagram Type 7, you will see that they are fast-paced, energetic, and have a definite sense of self. Additionally, they are always seeking stimulation and excitement; they are outspoken, frank, and self-assured; that is why they are adaptable to variety and change.

(Russel Rowe, 2003-2015.)

What are the weaknesses of an ESE (ESFj)?

According to Udalova E., ESEs experience difficulties with following a strict time frame (e.g. arrive on time, to meet the allotted time, to manage to complete many tasks in a short time). Strict time frames can cause complete exhaustion for ESE type. It’s also difficult for them to figure out the complexity of formal logic. They are enthusiastic about these tasks, however, they easily confuse quasi-logical reasoning with true reasoning.

(Udalova E., 2007)

What could be depressing for ESEs (ESFj)?

Udalova E. provides an example when the constant attachment to the place and strict adherence to the schedule after a couple of years lead the female representative of ESE type to a complete loss of interest in life. According to the author, jobs with tight time frames or unpredictable changes in rhythms are not suitable for ESEs. Formal tasks that exclude communication with people are also difficult for them.

(Udalova E., 2007)

Why are Enneagram Types 7 and 9 attracted to each other?

According to Russell Rowe, Type 7 and Type 9 have a sunny, optimistic attitude and dislike any kind of conflict; consequently, they get along exceptionally well. They seem happy with each other because they are satisfied with themselves. Type 7 and Type 9 are idealistic and romantic, with a highly sensual side. Type 7 and Type 9 are also sociable, likable people who enjoy doing things with their partners and tell jokes/stories and often strike each other’s funny bone.

(Russel Rowe, 2003-2015.)

What are some of the strengths of an ESE (ESFj)?

According to Udalova E., ESEs have huge enthusiasm that can captivate a lot of people and even reach the remaining passivity. This type has a desire to provide care to all those who came into view of the needy. ESEs can evaluate the energy of people well and notice carefully hidden relationships. The representatives of this type know how to escalate or disperse the desired atmosphere. They also feel the physical condition of those around them, the quality of the products, and the convenience and comfort of the interior. Author also observed that people of this type easily and creatively master cooking, repair works, needlework, and treatment of people. They are wonderful ideologists and very persistent in creating the proper emotional mood in their “territory”.

(Udalova E., 2007)

What is the optimal working condition for ESEs (ESFj)?

According to Gulenko V.V., the incentive that drives the “Enthusiast” (ESE) is an achievement of high emotional status in the group. Therefore, when interacting with this type, you should demonstrate a good attitude towards them, showing that you undoubtedly appreciate and respect their opinion. Author highlights that good pay and convenient working conditions are very important for ESE since this is a concrete-thinking type.

(Gulenko V.V.,2009)

How to befriend an ESE (ESFj) person?

Gulenko V.V. suggested that when interacting with ESEs, first of all, you need to show a good attitude toward them, which means that you undoubtedly appreciate and respect their opinion. The author also highlights that you should let ESEs speak out to the end, as this is an assertive type and it is unlikely that you can change their mind if they have entered an excited and emotional state. ESEs want to be good for everyone to be able to exert emotional impact. Hence, they strive to be liked by other people and help them with something.

(Gulenko V.V.,2009)

What is the best occupation or career for an ILE (ENTp)?

According to Udalova E., the best activity for ILEs is research. This type can bring the element of an invention into any activity., ILEs can bring originality and a sharp mind not only to research but also to other activities. 

Representatives of the ILE achieve fulfillment in non-traditional or constantly updated areas of activity (intuition) with an expanding circle of contacts (extraversion). They are fascinated by complex perspective tasks with large-scale consequences (nonchalance).

(Udalova E., 2007)

What are the best working conditions for ILE (ENTp)?

According to Gulenko V.V., it is necessary to assign interesting and unique tasks for ILEs to enhance their self-development. When assigning such kind of work to ILEs, you should сonvey to them that only they can do this task thanks to their intelligence, erudition, foresight, and uniqueness. Gulenko highlights that you should praise ILEs after completing the work and note their extraordinary abilities. The author recommends to quickly pick up a new, even more interesting work because this type quickly loses interest with the loss of novelty.

(Gulenko V.V.,2009)

What motivates ILE (ENTp) to work?

Gulenko V.V. highlights that interesting and unique tasks motivate representatives of ILE type. Also, the work must enhance self-development. When assigning such kind of work to ILEs, you should сonvey to them that only they can do this task thanks to their intelligence, erudition, foresight, and uniqueness. Gulenko highlights that you should praise ILEs after completing the work and note their extraordinary abilities. The author recommends to quickly pick up a new, even more interesting work because this type quickly loses interest with the loss of novelty.

(Gulenko V.V.,2009)

What can unbalance an ILE (ENTp)?

According to Udalova E., ILEs may lose interest in life or work if they are constantly facing reproaches of tactlessness and necessity to take care of others. The author highlights that the representatives of this type should not be assigned for work with long unpredictable communication. This can be explained by the fact that ILE can be quite awkward in communication and accidentally offend the interlocutor. Also, you should not include ILEs in any kind of argument between colleagues.

(Udalova E., 2007)

What are the strengths of an ILE (ENTp) person?

According to Udalova E., ILEs strengths are inventiveness, instant reaction to changing circumstances as well as a creative attitude toward legal and formal-logical tasks. Cohesive, holistic vision helps this type to apply methods of related fields in order to find solutions for the assigned tasks. The author also observed that strong logical thinking allows ILE to easily master a computer and adequately evaluate endless changes in legislation. Developed intuition helps both not to miss the opportunity of the moment and avoid the start of hopeless affairs.

(Udalova E., 2007)

What are the potential problems in a relationship with an ILE (ENTp)?

According to Udalova E., ILE can be quite awkward in communication and accidentally offend the interlocutor. Due to this fact, you should not include ILEs in any kind of argument between colleagues. Inappropriate resentment and bluntness make them easy prey for political opponents. In a situation of ethical pressure, it is typical for ILEs to switch from a mode of “searching for truth” to a mode of “exposing betrayal”. This behavior dramatically reduces the impression of others about ILE.

(Udalova E., 2007)

Is the MBTI useful?

The MBTI is a recognized famous test that assesses personality types and preferences. Personality, for the test, includes the character, behavior, and traits of an individual based on the theories developed by Carl Jung. The MBTI measures the levels of:

    1. Extraversion/Introversion. – how the attention is directed
    2. Sensing/Intuition. – how information is acquired
    3. Thinking/Feeling. – how decisions are taken
    4. Judging/Perceiving. – which lifestyle you adopt

Based on your preferences in these four dimensions, the test sorts you into one of the 16 possible personality types.

The MBTI has proven to have useful applications in counseling, clinical aspects, education, health, psychological aspects, marriage, family, social psychology, religion, management, and organizational development, amongst others.[1] In this article, we will exemplify some of the applications in education and business environments.

Application of the MBTI at the workplace

According to SHRM, the majority of HR professionals indicate that personality tests can be useful in predicting job-related behavior or organizational fit[2]. The MBTI is not an exception; it can be used for team building, for strengthening communication, for decision making, and for diagnosing organizational dysfunctions.[3] Besides, it can also be useful in leadership development, conflict & stress management, and career transition & planning.[4]

Currently, 89 of Fortune 100 companies use the MBTI[5]to build stronger, more effective teams and healthier organizations. Here is an example of the use of the MBTI in teambuilding:

“A thinking manager supervising several feelers gave the feelers strokes for jobs well-done but not for personal qualities, which discouraged the feelers. The MBTI was used to explain to the feelers that the manager’s behavior was a result of psychological type not insensitivity to them” [6]

Another example on MBTI’s team building application was pointed out by Flannes S. He said that Myers-Briggs offers great flexibility and application to the task of selecting and managing the members of a project team, in his words, MBTI helps “choosing a team that really works.” [7]

By understanding why others behave the way they do, team members acquire the knowledge of appreciating each other’s differences, and they realize that such differences are a natural consequence of different psychological types[8]

Application of the MBTI at school

Self-awareness can help students to concentrate their attention on a particular subject, focus on what is essential, and soothe the body and mind in different situations at school. Data from a study[9]indicates that using the MBTI helps students recognize their own and others’ preferences and how preferences affect choices. Further, the data suggest that the experience with the MBTI can enhance understanding of personal strengths and limitations.

Besides helping students to understand themselves better, MBTI also allows teachers to understand their students better. This understanding was proved in an experiment with a group of 116 chemical engineering students; they were taught in a way that accentuated active and collaborative learning and inductive presentation of class material. The main results of the experiment were: “Type differences in various academic performance measures and attitudes were noted as the students progressed through the curriculum. The observations were generally consistent with the predictions of type theory, and the experimental instructional approach appeared to improve the performance of MBTI types found in previous studies to be disadvantaged in the engineering curriculum”[10]. The experiment concluded that the MBTI is a useful tool for helping engineering teachers to understand their students better and to design instruction that can benefit students of all types.

The reliability of using MBTI for understanding students’ preferences was also proved in another study: “Relationships between academic ability and Jungian psychological type preference were examined for samples of gifted, regular, and special education upper elementary students. Contingency table analyses and correlations indicated that gifted students had a significant preference for perception. Regular education students tended to be extraverted, while gifted students tended to be introverted. Also, special education students had a significant preference for sensing.” [11]

Validating the MBTI in “real life.”

There is a powerful debate among scientists discussing that “job types” differ from “life types.” To prove that statement was wrong, Parham, Miller, & Carskadon[12] studied three groups: One group was given standard instructions; the second group answered the test as they would behave on a job; the third group received the standard instructions one time and vocational ones the other, the order split equally between members of this group. Test-retest reliabilities of continuous scores on each of the four MBTI scales for each of the three groups were reported, and there were no significant differences between groups, concluding that the MBTI test shows similar results for “Job types” and “real types.”

A similar debate points out that your reported type is not your “true type.”[13]To contradict this statement, Hammer & Yeakley studied a sample of 120 adults. First, they measured the reported type by the MBTI and then the “true” type by follow-up interviews. The results were in agreement for 85% of the time. Furthermore, agreement on individual scales averaged 95% or better, and when preference scores were in double digits, the agreement was perfect.

It doesn’t matter if you take the MBTI test for academic, work, or other purposes, the type you get is highly probably your true type. And, with the correct training and professional direction, the MBTI can be useful in almost every aspect of your everyday life.

 Disclaimer: There is no evidence of the existence of a personality tool with 100% accuracy. The MBTI is not an exception. To reduce the risk of classifying someone in a wrong type, HR professionals, psychologists, teachers, or counselors should use interviews as a complementary tool. The accuracy of the MBTI depends on honest self-reporting[14], so there’s always the possibility of individuals faking their responses.

Also, it is crucial to consider that the MBTI ethical guidelines state, “It is unethical and in many cases illegal to require job applicants to take the Indicator if the results will be used to screen out applicants.” The MBTI intends to provide “a framework for understanding individual differences, and … a dynamic model of individual development”.

 

By: Ana L. Bravo – Bachelor in Human Resources and Administration. Headhunter, Career Coach, and Business Advisor.

Bibliography:

[1] Carskadon, T. G. (2002). Celebrating Our 25th Anniversary: A Grand Synopsis of 400 Studies In Psychological Type

[2] SHRM.ORG poll

[3] Carpenter et al.,1983; Seeley and Seidler,1985; Gould and Sink 1985; and Pickering 1989

[4] Assessment Tool – Active Communication Ltd. http://www.activecommunication.net/mbti-assessment-tool/

[5] Janet Nguyen at Marketplace

[6] Coe, C.K. (1992) The MBTI potential uses and missuses in personal Administration,515.

[7] Flannes, S. (1998). Choosing the Team that Really Works:  How an Understanding of Personal Style Helps Your Team Succeed. Proceedings of the 29th Annual Project Management Institute Seminars & Symposium Long Beach, California, USA: Papers Presented October 9 to 15, 1998.

[8] Coe, C.K. (1992) The MBTI potential uses and missuses in personal Administration,516.

[9] Moore, Dietz. J., &Jenkins, D. A. (1997). Teaching about self-awareness: Using the MBTI to enhance professionalism in social work education. Journal of Psychological Type, 43,5-11. ED

[10]  Felder, R., Felder, G., and Dietx, E. (2002). The Effects of Personality Type on Engineering Student Performance and Attitudes. Journal of Engineering Education, 91(1), 3–17.

[11] Fourqurean, J., Meisgeier, C, Swank, P., & Murphy, E. (1988). Investigating the relationship between academic ability and type preference in children. Journal of Psychological Type, 16,38-41. ED

[12] Parham, M. N., Miller, D. I., & Carskadon, T. G. (1984). Do “job types” differ from “life types”? The effects of standard vs. vocationally specific instructions on the reliability of MBTI scores. Journal of Psychological Type, 7,46-48

[13] Hammer, A. L., & Yeakley, F. R., Jr. (1987). The relationship between “true type” and reported type. Journal of Psychological Type, 13,52-55

[14] Myers, I.B. &; McCaulley M.H. (1985). Manual: A Guide to the Development and Use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator #bookad

 

What are the best qualities/skills/talents SEI (ISFp) people have?

According to Udalova E., SEIs have a good taste, a sense of proportion, will, and perseverance. They can properly evaluate the quality of any product and explain it in detail. Caring and attentive to people, able to create comfort in a close environment. SEIs are diplomatic, which means they are able to convince and inclined to a conflict-free resolution. The author highlights that this type is emotionally stable, peaceful, and can correctly assess and adjust the relationships of others. The representatives of SEI type usually are successful in any kind of art, people caring, and needlework.

(Udalova E., 2007)

 

How can an INTP Child be described?

The characteristics of INTP children are:

  • INTPs are the most intensely curious of all the children; they are driven by a need to understand the world, and are independent and determinate
  • INTPs are logical and skeptical; they love to question theories and often have innovative ideas.
  • INTPs are adaptable and easy-going, and usually have a fun, offbeat sense of humor.
  • INTPs question authority figures if they see something that doesn’t make logical sense.

(Susan Storm, 2015.)

Which are the distinctive features of an INTP child?

  • INTP may get bored during school and possibly get poor grades as a result.
  • INTPs are easily frustrated by too much noise and talking. They live life inside their heads and find noise a constant interruption; because they are so internal, they can come across as clumsy or slow.
  • INTPs think through things logically, and without a lot of emotion or feeling, they are confused by other people’s feelings and have a hard time understanding social standards.
  • INTPs are most likely to be misdiagnosed with autism or Asperger’s, which is possible for them to have it, but so far, research has been inconclusive on this.

(Susan Storm, 2015.)

Which are the distinctive features of an INTJ child?

  1. According to Susan Storm, the distinctive features of an INTJ child are:
  • INTJ children have a low sill for outside stimulation; to think clearly and be at peace, they need things to be quiet; they need to be allowed privacy to thrive.
  • INTJ children can be independent and stubborn and struggle with authority.
  • INTJ respect only others who earn their respect. They have a strong sense of what is fair and don’t hesitate to defend it; they also have such a strong need to be right.
  • INTJ children are very internally focused on their ideas, that they don’t care about fitting in society
  • INTJs can care about their loved ones but aren’t demonstrative of their love.

(Susan Storm, 2015.)

How can an ENTP Child be described?

The characteristics of ENTP children are:

  • ENTPs are friendly, energetic, imaginative, curious, innovative, and with a good sense of humor.
  • ENTPs have a natural charm and cleverness that shows through their storytelling ability
  • ENTPs are spirited and insightful and enjoy debating with others.
  • ENTP children are skeptical and are rarely convinced of anything without rational reasoning
  • ENTPs are obstinate and argumentative, which can lead them to be called bossy

.(Susan Storm, 2015.)

Which are the distinctive features of an ENTJ child?

The distinctive features of an ENTJ child are:

  • ENTJs love a challenge and are ambitious. Because of this, they can get overwhelmed with a massive amount of obligations-
  • ENTJs don’t like to accept help with their projects, because that would make it impossible for them to enjoy the pride of fulfilling them
  • ENTJs like to be free and independent and want to have complete control of their environment.

(Susan Storm, 2015.)